Penetrating into the human body, papillomavirus provokes the appearance of papillomas, warts, warts on the skin and mucous membranes. Such formations are distinguished by dark pigment, round or peaked, the presence of "legs". With good patient immunity, the disease proceeds secretly for several years and is detected by chance during routine examinations. Concomitant favorable conditions can cause tissue proliferation and an increase in the concentration of growths. This condition is called papillomatosis.
Features of papillomatosis
Papillomatosis is a viral disease that needs to be treated. The mechanism of formation of growths on the skin and mucous membranes is not fully understood. The pathogen can integrate into the genome of the cell, and may exist outside the chromosome apparatus, causing benign changes. In any case, papillomas require medical removal.
Of the 100 varieties of HPV, some genotypes have the ability to transform cells into a malignant tumor. Of particular danger is laryngeal papillomatosis, since numerous accumulations on the mucous membranes of the throat make breathing difficult and can cause stenosis of the lumen, aggravation of speech function, and bronchopneumonia. Significant accumulations of papillomas on the cervix increase the risk of malignancy (malignancy) and the development of cancer.
Reasons for the development of pathology
Papillomatosis progresses on the background of infection and activation of HPV in the patient. However, many carriers do not suspect that they are capable of transmitting a pathogenic pathogen to healthy people. It is impossible to predict how the body will behave after infection. The area of damage and the intensity of the formation of neoplasms depend on the sensitivity of cells to the penetration of the virus and the immunity of an infected person, it is impossible to completely cure it. HPV is transmitted in several ways:
- Sexually during physical proximity without the use of preservatives;
- Household contact with the carrier of infection through damaged areas of the skin, microtrauma, cracks, as well as when using hygiene items;
- During childbirth, the virus is transmitted from mother to baby.
High risk of HPV infection in public places: fitness clubs, pools, saunas, nail salons or dental offices.
Most often, the disease manifests itself with a decrease in the body's defenses. The weakening of immunity occurs due to exacerbation of chronic diseases, inflammatory processes, herpes virus infection, smoking. The main symptom is the development of papillomas, genital warts, plantar warts in various parts of the body, skin and mucous membranes. Possible damage to internal organs (stomach, bladder). In shape, these are round or flat formations with clearly defined boundaries, slightly rising above the skin and differing in pigment.
Rashes can be single or appear in clusters resembling cauliflower. In some cases, papillomas secrete lymph, which is accompanied by the appearance of ulcers and putrefactive odor. For women, flat condylomas localized on the cervix are of particular danger, since they are difficult to diagnose, and an advanced course of the disease can lead to the formation of a cancerous tumor.
Forms of the disease
Depending on the location, there are several varieties of papillomatosis, characterized by separate symptoms:
- Urogenital papillomatosis is characterized by the formation of epithelial growths in the perineum, penis, anus, and both skin and mucous membranes are affected. These formations are similar to moles, discomfort appears from rubbing underwear.
- Vestibular papillomatosis affects the vaginal area, the lower third and posterior commissures, while the patient does not experience discomfort. Pathology is detected during colposcopy. In case of trauma to genital papillomas, soreness manifests itself during intercourse and is accompanied by bleeding.
- Laryngeal papillomatosis is quite difficult, a relapse of the disease is possible, followed by the operation of the affected areas. Scarring of tissue during healing provokes changes in the voice. The development of pathology is accompanied by the appearance of hoarseness, respiratory failure, the formation of numerous papillary growths on the mucosa. In childhood, a complication of respiratory papillomatosis leads to bronchopneumonia.
- Due to impaired circulation, a rare form of papillomatosis progresses – on the feet and limbs. A characteristic feature is the formation of soft tumor-like plaques, symmetrically located on the legs, reaching the size of the palm.
Diagnosis of pathological changes in the epithelium
For the initial detection of papillomatosis, an external examination of a specialist is enough: a gynecologist, otolaryngologist, dermatologist. A more accurate diagnosis is made after special research methods aimed at identifying the nature of the pathology, the degree of spread in the body, and the viral genotype. They also try to determine the risk of oncology using a tissue biopsy. In women, colposcopy and a cytological smear are performed.
The specificity of HPV in a patient is studied by analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method allows you to determine the DNA of papillomavirus, the stage of infection, the presence of viral cells.
Traditional ways to get rid of papillomatosis
The treatment regimen is selected individually for each patient, depending on the degree of growth and localization of papillomatosis. In case of single rashes, the doctor prescribes therapy with topical drugs (Epigen, Condilin, Imiquimod). The drug effect is supported by immunomodulatory agents based on interferon ("Giferon", "Viferon"), antiviral and enzyme medicines ("Wobenzym", "Podophyllin"), vitamin-mineral complexes ("Vitrum", "Alphabet").
In the case of extensive damage to tissues and mucous membranes, as well as for cosmetic purposes, surgical removal of papillomas is prescribed. In the absence of contraindications, one of the following methods is used:
- Cryodestruction (removal with liquid nitrogen);
- Radio wave surgery;
- Laser therapy;
- Cauterization by chemical compounds.
You can treat numerous growths at home using folk remedies. Many plants have the ability to dry the skin and with regular use can get rid of warts. Recipes lotions or compresses using aloe juice, Kalanchoe, alcohol tinctures, castor oil are used to remove external papillomas.
If papillomatosis is diagnosed on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity or internal organs, it is necessary to prepare decoctions and infusions from medicinal herbs (dandelion, nettle, chamomile, St. John's wort, birch buds) or do inhalation based on celandine. Depending on the selected herbal remedies, the course of therapy takes from 14 days to 2 months. Despite the benefits of traditional medicine, the removal of epithelial growths using traditional methods is still preferable: the risk of a new infection and relapse of the disease is reduced.