Papilloma, and in common people, a wart is a growth of a benign nature, painless, the size usually does not exceed 10 mm in diameter. Neoplasms are single, but, as a rule, after the appearance of the first growth, an increase in the number of papillomas is observed in one part of the body. Multiple lesions are called papillomatosis.
Localization places – skin integuments, mucous membranes. Warts often appear on the chest, in the nipple, or under the mammary gland. Moreover, their education does not depend on gender (although a woman is more susceptible to the development of papillomatosis on the chest than a man) and age criteria.
Causes of growths
The only reason for the formation of warts on the body is HPV – the human papillomavirus. According to statistics, more than 70% of the population are carriers of infection, but not everyone has skin growths.
HPV is transmitted in several ways:
- In close contact with a sick person (usually as a result of unprotected sexual relations, but even a condom is not able to give a 100% guarantee, since viral cells are present in saliva, urine, and sperm, which allows them to easily penetrate the body of healthy people even with an ordinary kiss);
- When using personal hygiene products of infected people (on various surfaces, the virus is able to maintain its activity for up to 3 hours);
- From an infected mother to a child – during passage through the birth canal, babies may develop laryngeal papillomatosis.
After HPV has entered the body, it is no longer possible to completely get rid of it – it is a chronic periodically recurring disease. In people with strong immunity, warts under the breast or in other parts of the body may not appear for decades – their body is able to suppress the activity of the virus.
People with weakened immune defenses may experience external manifestations of HPV several times a year. The following adverse factors contribute to the appearance of growths in the chest area (of course, against the background of reduced immunity):
- Failure to comply with proper hygiene;
- Excessive sweating;
- Wearing underwear strongly compressing the chest;
- Injuries to the skin, nipple, mammary glands (this can be a crack, rubbing and other physical effects);
- Age-related changes, hormonal imbalance.
The incubation period after infection lasts several weeks or months, then characteristic neoplasms appear.
Types and localization of growths
The chest, like any other part of the body, is prone to the formation of warts. The following types of neoplasms may appear on this site:
- Threadlike or hanging papilloma is a small, rather soft to the touch tumor. Dimensions rarely exceed 5 mm. Most often, such warts are localized under the mammary glands, and can spread to the armpits. Active growth is observed in the menopause, during pregnancy, in the presence of excess weight;
- Keratomas or senile warts – the appearance of neoplasms is not associated with HPV. Develop in people of the older age group (after 45 years). The growth can be flat or somewhat elevated above the skin, the shape is round, sometimes the size reaches 5 cm. It can appear anywhere, but most often on the upper body;
- Flat warts on the chest – occur during adolescence. Their size is not more than 5 mm. The shape is round. The growth protrudes slightly above the skin surface, sometimes flesh-colored with a yellowish tinge. Localization – face, neck, shoulders, sternum. Their appearance is associated with puberty, but when the hormonal background of a teenager stabilizes, warts disappear (on their own).
Forms – distinguish between external (located exclusively on the surface of the skin, nipple) and intraductal neoplasms (localized in the ducts of the mammary gland, this epithelial growth is called cystadenoma).
The clinical picture of the disease
It’s easy to detect signs of external warts:
- They are clearly visible, since they protrude above the skin surface;
- On palpation, you can feel the soft structure of the neoplasm;
- Color can vary from flesh tones to dark brown tones;
- External papilloma is painless, but as a result of an injury it can bleed, cause discomfort;
- The growths are single, as well as multiple;
- They tend to merge and form a single conglomerate (warty area).
An external wart is localized on the nipple, under and above the breast, can seed the entire mammary gland, and can be located in the halo area.
It is quite problematic to independently diagnose the intraductal papilloma, it is located in the subcutaneous space inside the duct of the mammary gland. If you palpate the breast, you can feel the tumor only when it is localized in the main (main) duct – a small round seal will be felt under the fingers, when pressed, fluid is released from the nipple.
In addition, intraductal papillomas are accompanied by burning, slight tingling, increased sensitivity and discharge from the nipple.
What is the danger?
Papillomavirus infection with blood flow spreads rapidly throughout the body, which is fraught with multiple seeding – papillomatosis.
In addition, a pathological neoplasm causes discomfort in everyday life – spoils the aesthetic appearance. It is also easily injured by clothing or in the process of hygiene procedures – bleeding occurs, it is possible to attach a secondary infection with all the ensuing consequences (inflammation, suppuration, others).
The biggest danger that lies in ordinary warts is the risk of a benign growth becoming a malignant tumor.
If there are characteristic growths in the chest, immediately consult a doctor, mammologist or oncologist.
After a visual inspection, you are most likely to be assigned the following studies:
- X-ray of the mammary gland (mammography);
- Ultrasound – shows the location and size of the intraductal wart;
- PCR – reveals the type and quantitative ratio of the pathogen;
- Microscopy and culturological examination of pathological discharge from the nipples;
- Galactography and ductography – to determine the exact location, size and contours of the neoplasm (the most informative methods).
Having determined the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes treatment, it consists in removing the growth, as well as subsequent immunological therapy.
To remove the viral neoplasm in the chest area, as well as other parts of the body, the following methods are used:
- Laser excision – under the influence of a laser beam, the growth withers and dies, leaving no traces;
- Radio wave destruction – the non-contact action of the radio knife allows you to burn out the tumor completely;
- Cryotherapy – external papillomas are treated with liquid nitrogen, after which they freeze and die;
- Electrocoagulation – a wart is burned by a high-frequency current. The method is effective, but can leave marks;
- Excision with a scalpel – performed with intraductal lesion (perform sectoral resection);
- Keratolytic agents – used with respect to external papillomas, if surgical intervention is contraindicated. For example, during pregnancy;
- Necrotic drugs are aggressive substances that burn out a growth after application.
After the removal procedure, immunostimulating therapy is prescribed – suppositories, tablets, solutions containing interferon, as well as taking vitamin complexes.
Self-medication is not recommended; all procedures are best carried out in a medical facility.