The active form of HPV is the reason that viral papillomas appear in the body, as well as the mucous membranes of a person (in the common wart). More than 100 strains of papillomavirus are known, some of which carry oncogenic properties. So, the formation of warts in the mouth, this is most often a consequence of the activation of HPV type 16. More rarely, the culprits of tumors in the oral cavity are serotypes 1, 2, 3, 18.
How does infection happen?
A wart, in fact, is an overgrown epithelial cell of the upper layer of the skin or mucous tissues. Penetrating into the body, HPV is introduced into the skin cells, causing their uncontrolled division.
HPV is transmitted in several ways:
- Contact-household (the use of individual means of everyday life of a sick person or direct tactile contact, for example handshakes);
- Sexual (viral DNA is present not only on the skin and mucous membranes, but also in biological fluids – sperm, saliva, urine, so you can get infected during a sexual act and even with a kiss);
- From a sick mother to a child (the baby becomes infected by passing through the birth canal);
- Self-infection – after contact with the infected surface, a virus remains in the hands of a person, whose activity lasts 3 hours. If after that he decides to stick a finger in his mouth, for example, has a habit of biting his nails, then the virus settles on the mucosa and penetrates through any microtrauma.
After infection, the growth in the mouth does not appear immediately, several weeks or even months pass. Some people never encounter external HPV rules because their immune system muffles viral attacks on their own.
In order for the papillomavirus to become active, a sharp decrease in immunity is necessary, this is facilitated by exacerbation of chronic ailments, hormonal, endocrine dysfunctions, vitamin deficiency and other adverse factors. In other cases, the infection is latent in the body (in sleep mode).
Localization and types of neoplasms
If the growth is located in the oral cavity, this brings serious discomfort to a person's life. Neoplasms that appear here are conditionally divided into reactive (papillomas, this is a consequence of constant irritation of the mucous membrane) and neoplastic (appear less often, but are of a multiple nature – they contaminate the entire oral cavity).
A wart in the tongue, and indeed in the oral cavity, can be of two types:
- Genital warts – These are elongated growths, the color of which rarely differs from the shade of the mucosa. They are painless, but often injured, complicating the meal (sometimes it’s even difficult for a person to speak). They can be localized at the root of the tongue, but more often grow under it;
- Flat tumors – they protrude slightly above the level of the mucosa, have the shape of a ball with clear edges. The color is rich burgundy. These are painless papules, however, if they tend to grow and are localized at the root of the tongue, there is a risk of a complete overlap of the larynx. But still, most often they can be found on the inner side of the lips, cheeks, hard palate.
Less often, papillomas grow on the gums and on the outside of the lips.
If genital growths were found in the oral cavity, then, most likely, similar neoplasms inseminate the genital area, which can be eliminated only in a medical facility.
Manifestations of growths and their danger
After the virus has invaded the body, the first symptomatic manifestations in the form of characteristic growths appear after about 2-3 months (it all depends on the immune system).
Rashes can contaminate the entire mucous membrane of the mouth, these are neoplastic growths – they affect the cheeks, tongue, gums. Often accompanied by itching, slight soreness during meals.
Reactive neoplasms can occur as a result of frequent injuries, irritation, for example, biting the tip of the tongue, rubbing dentures on the mucous tissues of the gums, cheeks, or other adverse factors. At the same time, they do not deliver any pain.
In the tongue, neoplasms usually grow in the form of papillae with an uneven surface, the size of one element can reach 2 cm. Flat growths appear on the inner side of the cheeks and the sky, they are rough with a granular surface. They can also reach several centimeters in diameter.
Physical and aesthetic discomfort, this is not the worst thing that warts can bring to a person's life. Fear should be malignant growths – their degeneration into a malignant tumor.
Usually, the neoplasms are painless, but if you feel severe itching, pain, the affected area is inflamed and bleeding, you need to urgently see a doctor – after all, these symptoms may indicate that the wart degenerates into cancer.
Diagnosis and treatment
Any neoplasms require qualified therapy – no folk method or "miraculous" means can be used with respect to growths in the mouth, you can start the process of malignancy with your actions.
Consult a doctor and go through a diagnosis – PCR analysis is performed, as well as histological examination of neoplasms. After that, appropriate therapy is determined.
- Conservative technique. Apply if the growth does not have a tendency to active growth. The treatment is aimed at suppressing viral activity, increasing the body's immune forces and stopping the growth of the wart. The doctor also provides an explanation about oral hygiene.
- Hardware Techniques. These are the most effective ways with which you can remove a tumor without leaving a trace:
Laser treatment – under the influence of a beam of papilloma withers out. For 1 session, you can remove several growths. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Infection and bleeding are excluded;
Radiotherapy – contactless burning of the wart occurs. Healthy mucosa is not injured. The safest and most effective method;
Electrocoagulation – cauterize the growth with electric current. There is no blood loss, infection is excluded, but tissue scarring is possible;
Cryotherapy – papilloma freezes under the action of liquid nitrogen. At first it becomes white, then it compacts, crusts and dies.
After the growth has been removed, the doctor prescribes immunological therapy – taking interferon drugs, antiviral drugs, and vitamin complexes.