Condylomas are benign formations on the papillary layer of the mucous membranes or skin that look like warts. As long as the growth does not affect the epidermis, a person is considered non-infectious. After this, we can talk about the development of condylomatosis. Condylomas are divided into types depending on external signs and causes of occurrence.
The main factor of occurrence is the human papillomavirus. Under this name, many strains are hidden, most of which are unable to affect humans. Most often, formations appear due to the fault of 6 and 11 types of HPV. These strains are characterized by low oncogenicity, that is, the probability of degeneration of genital warts into cancer is very small.
Why condylomas can occur?
The human papillomavirus spread with great speed around the world, and every day there are only more infected. This is due to the fact that the disease is very easily transmitted. Unlike most sexually transmitted pathologies, HPV can be taken not only sexually. In addition to it, the disease is transmitted through handshakes and kisses, through the use of the same objects, as well as in a vertical way.
Despite the wide spread of the virus, not every person has symptoms. In most cases, the immune system copes with the suppression of the pathogen, and therefore no warts are formed. Thus, the causes of their occurrence lie in factors that worsen the state of immunity.
- A large number of sexual partners;
- Period of pregnancy;
- Chronic stress
- Alcohol abuse;
- Non-observance of hygiene rules;
- Improper nutrition;
- Pathologies that directly affect immunity (HIV);
- Sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, herpes, candidiasis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis);
- Vaginal dysbiosis (in women).
Even after childbirth, the female body is still weakened, and therefore the immunity may not be strong enough. Hormonal changes, a lack of vitamins and minerals in combination with nervous and physical exhaustion open all doors for the virus.
At the same time, protecting yourself from the disease through barrier contraceptives will not work. Condylomas are often located next to the genitals, and not on them, condoms do not prevent contact with these parts of the body.
Common types of genital warts
These benign formations are classified according to different criteria. For example, they are divided into exophytic and endophytic. The first type, which includes the most common, genital warts, is characterized by outward growth. This means that it forms growths directly on the skin.
The second type, the so-called flat condyloma, is subcutaneous formation, which gradually penetrates deep into the epithelial layers. It is such growths that have high oncogeneity, that is, they can lead to the onset of the cancer process. Of particular danger is the fact that it is impossible to notice the internal condylomas with the naked eye.
Most often, symptoms appear on the genitals and in the urethra. Classic locations:
- Body member;
- The area near the urethra and anus;
Very rarely, but nevertheless there are growths that have formed on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. The most difficult thing to notice is the formation of women if they are localized in the vagina and uterus. In the event that condylomas will undergo friction or other mechanical stress, gradually their size can greatly increase.
Other types of genital warts
When it comes to condylomas, most often it is the genital type that is considered. It looks like formations on the leg, their color practically does not differ from skin. Gradually they are able to grow. As a result, multiple genital warts in the photo resemble a cauliflower or a cockscomb.
Other varieties of growths:
- Papular (papuloid) warts. In shape, they resemble a dome, the surface is smooth, the color is dark red. Appear on the epithelium if it is completely keratinized;
- Keratonic warts. Usually develop on the skin of the pubis, the outer side of the foreskin or on the trunk of the penis. The surface is dense, there is a leg;
- Condylomas of Bushke-Levenshtein. These are kind of giant condylomas, therefore, externally they look like separate affected areas of the skin or mucous membrane. Of them, a secretive with a pungent odor can stand out. On the surface there are lobules or papillary formations. Typical localization is the labia, cervix, anus and vulva in women. In men, they mainly appear in the perianal region, occasionally at the base of the penis;
- Endourethral condylomas. If they develop at the external opening of the urethra, then they acquire a conical shape with a sharp apex. When occurring in the anterior urethra, they do not differ from the standard types; they can be either single or multiple.
Numerous overgrowths of formations sometimes speak of warty epidermodysplasia. It is also called Lewandowski-Lutz disease. This is a genetic mutation due to which the immune system is disrupted. Unlike genital warts, such manifestations are caused by strains numbered 3, 14, 20, 21, 25.
Some patients in the anus develop extensive formations that can be confused with hemorrhoids. They can also appear on the labia or penis. In this case, growths are defined as ordinary condylomas, that is, a consequence of the action of the human papilloma virus. In fact, the situation is different.
Wide condylomas on the skin that come in contact with a large surface area are caused by another disease – syphilis. This venereal pathology spreads almost as well as HPV.
The main transmission routes:
- Contact household;
- With a blood transfusion or organ transplant from a sick person.
The risk group consists of employees of organizations with access to infected tissues, such as saliva and blood. This includes not only employees of medical institutions, but also people working in cosmetic and tattoo parlors.
Syphilitic warts appear in the second stage of the disease. First, small sores form on the skin. In some patients, they itch and cause pain, while in others they do not lead to any sensations. Soon enough, the rashes will disappear, and wide condylomas will come in their place.
If the patient is not provided with adequate treatment on time, formations can reach the internal organs, circulatory, nervous system and even bones. As a result, this leads to death. These warts are characterized by an uneven surface on which serous fluid is located. Usually their size is about two centimeters.
Thread and drain formations
Filiform warts, also called acrochords, form in the armpits, under the mammary glands, on the neck and face. Usually their size does not exceed a few millimeters. In the process of development, the growths are extended, become oblong and hang on the leg. The consistency of the formation is dense and elastic.
The filamentous warts themselves do not pose a serious danger, since they cannot degenerate into cancer. However, in the event of an injury, the human papillomavirus will pass to neighboring areas of the skin, leading to the development of new inflammations. Unlike the vast majority of types of genital warts, this option is almost unusual for spontaneous disappearance.
Spill condylomas are spoken about when genital type progression occurs. Formations grow together, forming areas with a continuous growth. Under the influence of acetic acid, drain condylomas turn pale, which facilitates the diagnosis process.
Treatment of genital warts
The method of therapy is determined depending on the location and extent of the spread of formations. Small condylomas should be treated with creams and ointments in combination with the use of antiviral drugs. This allows you to stop the symptoms. It is impossible to completely get rid of HPV after infection.
In more serious situations, you have to turn to the procedures for removing genital warts. For this, different techniques are used:
- Surgical removal;
- Laser removal;
- Chemical removal;
Today, doctors most often suggest removing condylomas using laser therapy or the radio wave method. They are less painful and likely to have complications. Often used and cryotherapy.
Feedback on the treatment of genital warts:
“About seven genital warts were removed using liquid nitrogen. There was no unpleasant sensation in the vagina, but a terrible pain appeared when exposed to the clitoris. A few years later, a relapse of the disease occurred, this time the doctor said to remove using a laser. The procedure is performed under anesthesia, so it is not suitable for everyone. After cauterization by solkaderm, I had to go to radio wave therapy. ”