Onychomycosis is not only a cosmetic defect, but also a serious infectious disease, which must be eliminated. With this pathology, the nail plate is gradually destroyed, it turns yellow, changes shape, crackes and crumbles. You can treat the fungus both in the medical center with a laser or medical pedicure, or at home. Folk and drug methods of eliminating mycosis are no less effective than professional, therefore, it is precisely on them that more and more patients have been paying attention lately.
Causes of onychomycosis and its symptoms
Mycotic lesions of the feet occur due to infection by pathogenic microorganisms. This happens when you visit the beach, pool and sauna without special slippers. Also, infection occurs when using someone else's shoes, insufficient sterilization of instruments in pedicure rooms. Elderly people, people with weakened immunity and chronic diseases of internal organs are most often affected by this ailment.
For the onset of symptoms of the disease, fungal spores must enter a favorable environment. Close, closed shoes made of synthetic materials, excessive sweating – all this creates suitable conditions for the multiplication of infection. Additionally contribute to the appearance of onychomycosis:
- imbalances in the hormonal balance of the body;
- diseases of the stomach and intestines;
- adrenal and thyroid diseases;
- bad habits – smoking, alcoholism.
The fungus not only spoils the nails, but also harms the entire body. Pathogenic microflora can spread to internal organs and healthy tissues, cause a systemic, severe disease. In addition, the fungus secretes toxins that enter the bloodstream and provoke poisoning of the patient. Many chronic diseases on the background of mycoses are much more severe, often inflammation of the extremities joins the existing pathologies.
Symptoms of nail fungus
Onychomycosis can be recognized by the following symptoms:
- the plate changes color – it becomes yellow or brown;
- the nail looks thick, shapeless;
- cracks, chips, signs of destruction appear;
- after nails, soft tissues on the foot are affected by mycotic infection – the skin peels off, there are cracks, ulcers, erosion.
Treatment of toenail fungus
You can destroy onychomycosis and restore a healthy look to your nails with pharmacy ointments and tablets, as well as with the help of traditional medicine.
But in any case, so that everything goes well, the skin and nails are pre-steamed. Then the drugs are well absorbed and destroy the mycelium, together with the spores. To do this, conduct twenty-minute foot baths. You can add a little soda to them. Then the nails are trimmed, removing dead fragments with a scraper. The feet are wiped and dried. Preliminary preparation for treatment significantly increases the effectiveness of any therapy.
Non-traditional methods of treating onychomycosis are most effective in the initial period of the disease, that is, when the first symptoms appear. They treat worse forms of the fungus worse, but they complement pharmacy preparations well. Most often, such grandmother’s recipes are used to remove mycosis:
- Alcohol solution of iodine. This medicine kills the fungus and disinfects the surface of the skin, prevents the appearance of inflammatory diseases. The drug is very simple to use: just apply one drop of it to the nail affected by onychomycosis. The procedure is carried out in the morning and evening for two to four weeks. It is advisable to lubricate the surrounding skin with the drug to prevent infection;
- Hydrogen peroxide. Perhydrol (3%) is carefully applied to a sore nail. Cotton wool moistened with medicine is fixed, wrapped with cellophane on top, left for half an hour. After two to three weeks, the first signs of recovery should appear;
- Vinegar: wine and apple. A small amount of essence (2-3 tbsp. L.) Is added to the basin of water and the legs soar. Procedures are done daily in the evenings. Another recipe is to mix equal parts of vinegar and glycerin, then lubricate diseased nails with this medicine. The third method of application is eggshell dissolved in wine vinegar. It is smeared with a nail plate for three to four weeks;
- Propolis. This natural product produced by bees can not only defeat onychomycosis, but also quickly repair a damaged nail. The drug has bactericidal and fungicidal properties, accelerates the regeneration and growth of nail plates. Melted propolis treat areas affected by mycosis with a piece of cotton wool or tampon;
- Bleach (White). This product contains sodium hypochloride, which, when processing any surface, releases active chlorine into the environment. It destroys mycelium, prevents the spread of spores, kills microbes. Before applying White, the nails are carefully steamed, their softened parts are removed, wiped and dried. Bleach is used both undiluted and in a mixture with propolis, tar soap, water. White is carefully applied to the nail plate. Contact with surrounding skin should be avoided. Bleach, diluted in a ratio of 1 to 3 with water, is used in the form of compresses. Chlorine is very toxic, it must be used with care, avoiding inhalation of vapors;
- Washing powder. An ordinary detergent helps to cure the fungus in the initial stage. The therapeutic effect is possessed by alkalis, which are present in any composition of laundry detergents. In a bowl of warm water, half a glass of powder is dissolved and once a day feet are soared in this liquid. The course of treatment will take about two weeks;
- Garlic. The fastest way to remove mycosis is to use the alcohol tincture of this plant. They also use gruel from its cloves. Mix crushed garlic in equal parts with ethanol. Daily use of such an ointment will help to remove onychomycosis. Chopped garlic is also used in a mixture with table salt. The gruel is applied to the diseased nail and the lotion is fixed for the night. The first result of therapy can be seen in one to two weeks;
- Boric acid. The most inexpensive drug used for onychomycosis. She is lubricated with a keratin plate several times a day. Acid is also added to daily foot baths. You can use the medicine in the form of a dry powder – they sprinkle their feet and nails at bedtime. Sleep in socks.
Infusions and decoctions of herbs can also help permanently get rid of mycosis of nails. They are used in the form of baths, compresses, lotions. You can use chamomile, calendula, nettle, jasmine, valerian or wormwood.
Other good medicines from improvised products and simple drugs that are allowed to treat onychomycosis at home:
- Lemon. This citrus, thanks to the acid contained in it, quickly helps to remove the fungus. A small piece of it is fixed on the nail with a band-aid. After ten days of use, mycosis disappears;
- Coffee. Trays from a brewed strong drink can destroy a fungal infection. To do this, the affected fingers are immersed in the cooled liquid. Treatment is carried out before bedtime. Coffee also helps to heal the skin, remove inflammation, relieve pain;
- Tea tree. The oil of this plant treats many skin diseases. This medicine has antiseptic, regenerative and antibacterial effects. Oil is applied to the nail twice a day. The drug should not get on the skin. It is used both in concentrated form and in diluted vegetable oil in equal proportions. Then the nail is sealed with adhesive tape. The result of treatment will be visible in one to two months;
- Golden mustache. A leaf of this plant is applied to a sick nail, fixed with a bandage. After a few days, the plate softens, it can be easily removed. Over time, a new, healthy nail will grow. Another method of using a medicinal plant is alcohol tincture from its leaves. The resulting liquid is diluted in half with water and a diseased nail is lubricated with it;
- Rowan. The crushed leaves of this plant are fixed on top of diseased nails with a band-aid. Such night compresses will quickly get rid of unreleased onychomycosis;
- Lilac. The flowers of the plant insist on ethyl alcohol. The obtained medicine is applied to the affected area 2-3 times a day;
- Celandine. Every day, a compress is applied to the nail from dry, crushed leaves of the medicinal plant and tincture of iodine. The lotion is left for twenty minutes. After a week, the first result should be noticeable. Another recipe – freshly squeezed grass juice is mixed with a glass of ethyl alcohol. Then the nails are lubricated with this medicine. So treated for about fifteen days. Celandine not only kills mycosis, but also removes a sore nail. In its place begins to grow healthy;
- Tea mushroom. A small fragment of it is wound to a sick nail, put on socks and left overnight. The treatment is supplemented with regular treatment of problem nails with iodine solution. At the beginning of such therapy, the patient may experience pain.
Modern medicine offers many ways to destroy onychomycosis with drugs for external use and oral tablets. The course of drug treatment of an advanced disease is quite long, sometimes it lasts up to a year, but the result is always noticeable. The main thing is to choose the right drugs.
Most often, dermatologists prescribe the following agents:
- Clotrimazole. An inexpensive drug that really helps with mycoses. They release it in the form of a cream or ointment. Apply the medicine to the plates daily, morning and evening;
- Mycospore. It is used once a day, spreading a thin layer on the nail. This drug has no contraindications, it can be prescribed to pregnant women;
- Mycosan. An effective and relatively inexpensive drug. The ointment is applied after preliminary treatment of the nail with a special nail file. The plate is polished weekly and the dead layer is removed. The course of treatment is about six months;
- Lamisil. It helps well from any type of mycosis. They treat not only nails, but also areas of the skin affected by the fungus. The plate is steamed, cut, then an ointment is applied to it;
- Terbinafine. Apply this medicine for a long time: from 4 months to six months. Release form – ointment. Apply the drug once every three days on a well-prepared nail plate.
In addition to ointments and creams, varnishes containing antifungal agents are used to destroy onychomycosis. Using them is much more convenient – it is enough to treat the nail with such a tool once a week. The medicine acts all this time continuously. The drug fills the cracks on the nail plate, destroying the fungus in the most inaccessible places. Still varnishes mask cosmetic defects that have arisen due to pathogenic microflora. Thanks to this, the patient ceases to experience psychological discomfort and does not hesitate to look at his feet.
There is only one drawback of this method of treatment – the remedy gets only on the nails, the adjacent skin is not exposed to drugs and can be affected by mycosis. Therefore, it is desirable to combine treatment with this form of drugs with other types of antimycotics.
The best antifungal varnishes:
- Loceryl – a well-known and effective tool;
- Batrafen – a broad-spectrum drug, removes many types of fungus;
- Demikten – An inexpensive medicine, but it helps only in the early stages of the disease.
For the complete destruction of the pathogenic fungus before prescribing a drug, a laboratory study of the nail fragment is performed. Using the analysis of scraping from the keratin layer, the exact name of the pathogen is determined, its resistance to antimycotic drugs is recognized, and then the optimal treatment regimen is prescribed. Therefore, the independent selection of drugs does not always lead to the elimination of onychomycosis.
After the disappearance of the external signs of the disease, it is necessary to confirm the absence of the fungus by laboratory research.
If necessary, topical treatment of onychomycosis is supplemented with oral drugs:
- Ketoconazole. It can not be prescribed for diseases of the liver or kidneys. Helps cure extensive mycoses;
- Terbinafine. For six months, relieves advanced nail diseases. Contraindicated in renal pathologies;
- Diflucan. Take it once a week, drink until completely cured.
If the fungus has spread to half the nail plate, then it must be removed. In this case, the feet continue to be treated with antimycotic ointments. Over time, a healthy nail will grow on the finger.
At home, a diseased nail is destroyed by the drug Nogtimycin. The medicine gently lubricates the damaged plate. Previously, it is steamed in hot water. The treated area is sealed with adhesive tape, the ointment should not fall on neighboring skin areas. After three days, the nail softens, it can be easily removed with a nail file.
In order not to become infected with onychomycosis, you must observe the following precautions:
- to visit the beach, sauna, pool should be special slippers;
- it is necessary to combat excessive sweating of the legs, use special medications to reduce sweating;
- it is advisable to abandon socks made of artificial materials;
- shoes should be regularly disinfected from the inside;
- if one of the family members has mycosis of the feet, then he should have a separate towel, washcloth, soap and other hygiene items;
- it is necessary to properly and regularly take care of the legs, especially after the onychomycosis.
When the first signs of fungal infection of the legs appear, treatment should be started immediately. In the early stages, the disease is quickly cured, and advanced onychomycosis requires long-term therapy and often leads to complications.