Papillomas on the anus can cause a lot of trouble. The culprit of their distribution is papillomavirus. The danger of such neoplasms is a high risk of malignancy in the absence of proper therapy.
Causes of anal papilloma
According to statistics, about eighty percent of the world's inhabitants carry HPV (human papillomavirus). Most of them may not suspect that they are infected. This is due to the "sleeping" phase of the papillomavirus. During this period, HPV does not manifest itself. The activation of papillomavirus and the development of papillomatosis contribute to:
- Decreased immunity due to acute viral or bacterial infection;
- Physical or emotional strain;
- Hormonal changes in adolescents, pregnant women or nursing mothers;
- Long-term use of antibiotics or steroid drugs;
- Use of hormonal contraceptives or spirals;
- Exacerbation of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Classification of papillomas on the pope
Genital warts or papillomas that form around the anus are classified into such subspecies:
- Single large;
- Multiple, merging into one entity;
- Single small size.
Very often, a superficial examination confuses the papilloma and the wart. A distinctive feature of papillomas is the "leg". Thin or, in rare cases, wide. The surface of the papilloma is scaly. The color of the formation is from whitish to dark brown. Localization of genital warts – the skin around the anus or rectal mucosa. The second variety often causes the problem of timely emptying (constipation). Diagnosing such internal formations is much more difficult.
Penetrating into the human body, the papillomavirus settles on the lower layer of the dermis. The incubation or "sleeping" period of the disease can last several months, and sometimes years. At this time, HPV is found exclusively in the layers of the skin or mucous membranes. After the transition of the disease to the active stage, a sharp growth of virus cells begins, they are introduced into the DNA of the dermis cells, provoking their growth and the appearance of growths. At this point, a sick person becomes dangerous for others, as the possibility of transmission of papillomavirus opens.
Why is the transmission of perianal papilloma
Human papillomavirus infection occurs through sexual contact with an infected partner. The use of contraceptives does not give a 100% guarantee of protection against infection.
HPV can enter the bloodstream through microtrauma of the skin or mucous membranes. The skin in the genital area is much thinner, because the risk of injury is much higher. Blood of a damaged neoplasm increases the possibility of the spread of infection.
Symptoms of anal papillomatosis
The initial stage of the development of the disease is accompanied by such symptoms:
- Itching or burning sensation around the anus;
- The occurrence of pain during bowel movements, occasionally with minor bleeding;
- Sensation of bloating of the anus or the presence of a foreign body in it;
- Constant sensation of moisture on the pope;
- Excessive secretion of mucus from the anus;
- A slight increase in body temperature to 37 degrees.
Contact a specialist
Many are interested in the question of which doctor to go to if papillomas grow on the buttocks or around the anus, and is it worth it to turn to a specialist for help. The proctologist is engaged in growths near the anus or in the rectum.
This is due to the constant trauma of genital warts. It is possible to avoid the growth of a neoplasm into an oncological disease only by promptly seeking qualified medical help and starting therapy.
Diagnosis of anal papillomatosis in most cases consists of examination, a survey of the patient and, if necessary, sigmoidoscopy. Such a study allows the proctologist to evaluate the full picture of the disease and prescribe effective treatment.
Therapy of anal neoplasms
Genital warts can be treated by various methods, the effectiveness of each of them depends on the individual characteristics of the patient, a history of chronic diseases, the course of papillomatosis. The decision on the choice of treatment methodology is made by the attending physician.
Removal of genital warts
The condition for the effectiveness of the treatment of anus papillomatosis is the complete removal of growths. You can get rid of the tumor using:
- Laser destruction. Under the influence of the laser beam, the cells of the formation evaporate layer by layer. The advantage of laser exposure is minimal blood loss. The process of complete healing takes several weeks;
- Radio knife. The non-contact method allows you to remove the papilloma, eliminating the likelihood of secondary infection. Complete healing takes from seven to twelve days;
- Cryodestruction. Freezing neoplasms with liquid nitrogen. Perhaps the appearance of a small scar at the site of a remote education. Wound healing takes from ten to fourteen days;
- Electrocoagulation. With the help of a high-frequency current, the growth is burned out. Healing takes three to four weeks;
- Surgical operation. The doctor with a scalpel excises the papilloma along with the root. Surgical excision is recommended for overgrown papillomas with deep roots.
The risk of recurrence of papillomatosis is due to the viral nature of the disease. Therefore, one should remain under the supervision of a specialist even after the complete disappearance of the rashes.
Pharmaceutical preparations against the human papillomavirus are aimed at strengthening the body's immune defenses. These include:
- Viferon. Immunomodulating agent, release form – gel or rectal suppositories;
- Genferon. A substitute for interferon produced by the body in response to a viral attack. Genferon in the form of anal suppositories is recommended for the treatment of papillomatosis;
- Allokin-alpha is available in the form of ampoules, used to treat papillomas with an increased risk of malignancy;
- Likopid – tablets with an immunostimulating effect;
- Immunomax – a solution for injections that activates the body's defenses;
- Epigen. The release form is a spray, relieves unpleasant symptoms (swelling, burning), increases the body's immune response, promotes healing of wounds after surgical excision of genital warts.
To remove papillomas around the anus at home, local antiviral ointments or a band-aid, impregnated with a special composition, are used. The main thing with home therapy is to prevent damage to healthy areas of the skin. Given the location of the papillomas, the patient will need outside help.
Solcoderm and Polophyllotoxin in the form of ointment, is used for local treatment of papillomatosis on the anus. It is required to apply the ointment carefully, in order to avoid getting the product on healthy skin. May lead to scarring of healthy tissues.
With the help of a band-aid with a special composition, growths can be removed in a few hours. The procedure is quite painful, due to strong compression of the growths. To alleviate the pain, wet the affected area with water.
Folk recipes from anal papillomas
Traditional medicine offers its own ways to combat anal papillomatosis:
- To moisten the defects with potato juice, broth of wild rose, horsetail, tincture of nettle or plantain two to three times a day. Continue treatment until the problem is completely eliminated;
- Juice from the stalk of freshly picked celandine is carefully processed exclusively by the growth itself. To protect healthy skin around the growth, you should lubricate it with a fat cream or petroleum jelly;
- Chaga can increase the effectiveness of celandine. After preparing a decoction of these two components, it is cooled, poured into molds and sent to the freezer. For two to three minutes, ice cubes are applied to the growths twice a day;
- A solution of iodine is used to get rid of anal papillomas. It is necessary to accurately treat the neoplasm with iodine, avoiding contact with healthy skin, two to three times a day.
When making your choice in favor of a particular method of getting rid of neoplasms, remember that alternative methods of treatment require a lot of time and are not always effective. It is better to consult a specialist in the initial stages of the disease.