Papilloma, condyloma, wart – these benign neoplasms are the result of the activity of human papillomavirus infection in the human body. The virus has many genotypes, each of which has its own serial number. All types of HPV are also divided into three groups – non-oncogenic, medium and high levels of oncogenicity. So HPV types 51 and 56 belong to the high oncogenic risk group, that is, under certain conditions, benign growths can be transformed into malignant neoplasms. Most often, HPV infection occurs sexually or by contact, but the characteristic growths can be detected several years after infection, the reason for this is the activation of the virus.
Reasons for HPV activation
HPV type 56, like other strains of the virus, enter the body through microdamages on the skin or mucous membranes. After penetration, the infection invades and takes root in the epithelial layer without any visible manifestations – the course of the disease is latent. This happens until the immune system is able to suppress the activity of papillomavirus (the incubation period can last several years).
The presence of any adverse factors, whether it is exacerbation of chronic ailments, frequent stresses, and STDs, reduce the protective barrier – immunity weakens, and HPV is activated. Now the infection is fully manifested and the first symptom is the formation of single genital growths (genital warts).
Also, quite often the manifestation of papillomavirus can be observed in pregnant women – this is the result of an unstable hormonal background. It is important to carry out treatment until the baby is born, in order to exclude infection during passage through the birth canal.
HPV can be activated with the onset of menopause. During this period, the female body is saturated with estradiol (a derivative of the hormone estrogen), which stimulates the vital activity of human papillomavirus infection.
In addition, quite often the cause of the growth of pathological growths is unskilled surgical intervention in the reproductive organs of a woman. For example, an unsuccessful abortion leads to scarring and keratinization of the mucous tissues, which becomes a favorable environment for the development of infection.
The danger of viruses 51 and 56
We have already said that 51 and 56 of the hpv genotype are included in the group of increased oncogenic risk, therefore, treatment should be done at the first sign of pathology.
Without adequate therapy, the infection progresses, single condylomas merge into one single conglomerate. Viral DNAs do not just infect the cavity, but begin to integrate into the chromosomal part of the cells, their transformation (mutation) occurs. The result of this activity is the multiplication of atypical cells, which are inherent in malignant tumors.
HPV 51, 56 refer to anogenital infections, therefore, they can cause cancer:
- Women usually develop oncological processes on the cervix, vulva;
- In men, the penis and prostate suffer, and in the presence of homosexual connections, damage to the rectum is possible.
In addition, the activation of the virus 51, 56 affects the reproductive sphere – in advanced cases, it causes infertility or can cause spontaneous abortion (miscarriage).
It should be noted that it is no longer possible to cure HPV for a person who has crossed the 30-year milestone, this is a chronic ailment, so he should learn to live and keep the virus in a latent state. It is also important to consult a doctor at the first signs of a pathology.
The first sign indicating the activation of HPV in both men and women is the formation of small yellow-gray or pinkish growths in the anogenital region. Without qualified therapy, neoplasms grow, merge, their surface becomes tuberous and resembles cauliflower inflorescences.
In men, the disease is somewhat easier than in women – condylomas form on the surface of the penis, which over time can spread throughout the anogenital zone. In advanced cases, the infection affects the urethra, which may be accompanied by pain during urination.
The female body tolerates the activation of 51.56 genotypes worse – in addition to the formation of growths in the genital area, weight loss is observed, nausea appears, reaching vomiting, although slightly, but the temperature rises, erosion on the cervix often opens.
With untimely therapy, the symptoms are aggravated:
- There is a strong burning sensation during urination (typical for both sexes);
- Possible bleeding (regardless of the menstrual period);
- Constant soreness in the lower abdomen aggravated during sexual intercourse;
- Abundant translucent genital discharge sometimes with bloody patches.
It is impossible to recognize the disease by these symptoms, since such signs are characteristic of many pathologies of the genitourinary system. You can’t hesitate, you need to go through the diagnosis and immediately begin treatment.
To detect viruses of type 51, 56, the following studies are carried out:
- Polymerase chain reaction – any biological fluid is suitable for analysis. The test helps to identify the pathogen strain;
- Digen-study – determines the serotype, viral load and the degree of oncogenicity of HPV;
- Cytological, histological examination is carried out to identify atypical cells.
Of primary importance is the primary diagnosis – examination by a gynecologist, colposcopy in women and visual urological examination in men.
A positive test result for HPV 51, 56 implies mandatory drug treatment, as well as the destruction of pathological growths.
To date, there are no drugs that would completely remove HPV from the body. However, with adequate antiviral therapy, the concentration of the virus can be significantly reduced; for this, such medicines as Groprinosin, Cycloferon, Allokin-alpha, Panavir, and others are used.
Since 51, 56 serotypes have increased oncogenicity, cytostatics such as Podophyllin, Bleomycin, 5-fluorouol, Vinblastine, which prevent the growth of malignant neoplasms, can be prescribed to patients.
An important stage of complex therapy is the administration of immunomodulating drugs – Likopid, Derinat, Lavomax, Immunal, and others. They increase strength and help the body resist infection.
Along with drug treatment, destruction of pathological growths is performed (they are removed). There are several ways to do this:
- Laser beam – an effective bloodless method, used to remove growths of any localization;
- Radio waves are an innovative non-contact method of exposure, effective against growths of any localization;
- Electrocoagulation is an effective but painful way. Not recommended for use in open areas of the body.
Cryotherapy – this method is rarely used to remove genital growths (only in the case of single superficial warts). Surgical intervention using a scalpel is performed at an increased risk of degeneration into cancer.
Strongly do not recommend removing growths on their own using aggressive chemicals – if used carelessly, they provoke a severe burn.
What to do next
If you have been diagnosed with 51, 56 type of HPV, complex therapy is mandatory, after which you must observe the following precautions throughout life:
- Regularly undergo preventive examinations;
- Do not neglect the rules of personal hygiene;
- Streamline sexual intercourse;
- Use contact contraception;
- Saturate the diet with healthy foods;
- At least twice a year to take a course of vitamin therapy;
- Refuse bad habits – in general, lead a healthy lifestyle.
Your main task is to strengthen and increase the supporting forces of the body. Since HPV is an immune-dependent virus, whether you have a relapse or not depends on the state of immunity.