Human papillomavirus after infection of the body often becomes the cause of the development of diseases of the reproductive system. Among the more than 100 varieties of HPV known in modern medicine, some pathogenic bacteria, with concomitant favorable factors, cause changes in the cellular structure.
Detection of oncogenic papillomavirus type 16 or type 18 DNA in women is of great danger, since it can subsequently cause cervical cancer. However, the right medical actions help to recover and live a full life.
Features of HPV type 16 and 18
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse and is latent for a long time. Sometimes pathogen detection occurs directly when diagnosing a malignant tumor. For the female body, infection is more dangerous than for men.
Due to their high oncogenic abilities, viruses 16 and 18 cause changes in the cells of the cervical epithelium, which leads to the development of dysplasia and cancers. In addition, the papillomavirus can provoke the appearance of oncology on the external genitalia, the walls of the vagina, in the region of the anus.
The manifestation of negative consequences does not always occur, sometimes the period of transformation of benign tumors takes 10-15 years after infection with a pathogenic microorganism and with timely diagnosis, the infection can be successfully treated. However, some factors can accelerate the transition of HPV from the latent state to the active phase of reproduction.
- Weakened immunity in women;
- Inflammatory and chronic diseases;
- Diagnosed pathologies of the cervix, change in the microflora of the vagina;
- Abortions and miscarriages;
- Hypothermia or overheating of the body;
- Hereditary predisposition to cancer.
Pregnant patients and women during menopause are at risk. A large percentage of carriers of human papillomavirus are among those who began sexual activity early and often change sexual partners.
Symptoms of infection of the body
In addition to the genital tract, in rare cases, HPV enters the body by airborne droplets or through skin injuries during bodily contact. Under concomitant conditions, the virus multiplies in tissue cells, causing a change in structure and the appearance of the following formations in various parts of the body:
- Warts: have a bright red or dark color, stand out on the skin with small round growths. Mainly affect the area of the palms, feet, elbows;
- Papillomas: usually have a body color, first localized in the armpits, inguinal region, fat folds. Without proper treatment, they spread throughout the body;
- Condylomas: The most dangerous lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, as they can subsequently transform into a malignant tumor. Neoplasms have a spiky shape. Appear on the genitals and near the anus, can move to the surface of the thighs. If warts are found, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Such symptoms give rise to a diagnostic examination for HPV. The peak risk of developing cervical dysplasia and subsequently cancer is reached at the age of 45 years.
The introduction of the virus into the chromosome apparatus of the cells takes some time, after which the development of pathological processes begins with weakened immunity. If the body's immune defense works without failures, women under 30 years old are more likely to self-eliminate type 18 HPV within 1-2 years. With age, the chances of spontaneous disposal of papillomavirus infection are reduced. Even with successful treatment, the virus will always remain in the blood of a person.
According to medical data, from the moment of infection of the body with a virus, a transformation into a malignant tumor occurs in 12-15 years. With favorable factors for the reproduction of the pathogen, the period is reduced to 6-7 years. Therefore, it is important to diagnose papillomavirus in the female body in time.
Often, the detection of HPV occurs during a routine examination by a gynecologist, therefore, even in the absence of unpleasant symptoms, you should regularly visit a doctor.
Diagnosis of the defeat of the female body is carried out by the following methods:
- Analysis of polymerase chain reaction to human papillomavirus. The procedure is painless and consists in taking a smear from the cervical mucosa. Using a sample of biomaterial, it is possible to determine the presence of HPV, the genotype and the number of viral bacteria. In addition, one sample can see the types of pathogens existing in the body. The analysis reveals an infection at an early stage, which facilitates further treatment. Diagnosis is recommended every 3 years, since the number of dangerous strains during this period can increase significantly and lead to the transformation of benign tumors into malignant.
- Papillomavirus DNA analysis (Digene test). The hybrid capture method is more accurate and allows you to determine the concentration of viral cells in 1 ml of the sample. Only clinically relevant indicators are taken into account, when exceeding the permissible value can subsequently lead to cervical precancer. To obtain data, scraping tissue from the cervical canal is taken.
- In some cases, the doctor takes a smear for cytological examination and performs colposcopy. To exclude the progression of pathological changes, a biopsy of the cervical tissue is performed. For preventive purposes, a smear for cytology is given every 2 years after 25 years.
If, as a result of the diagnosis, papillomavirus is detected in the latent state of a woman’s body, it is necessary to monitor the development dynamics every 6 months by means of a gynecological examination. In the case of a positive response about pathological changes in the tissues, the patient should not fall into despair. If the tumor is detected at an early stage, the tumor can be cured without negative health effects.
The main methods of treating an infection until it has passed into the stage of a malignant tumor include symptomatic therapy, general strengthening of the body using drugs. Removal of warts, papillomas or genital warts is necessary for subsequent preventive treatment with medications. For this, cryodestruction, electrocoagulation, laser irradiation or cauterization with chemical compounds are performed.
Surgical removal of papillomas
Surgical intervention is used quite often, since the virus manages to cause pathological changes in the cell structure until it is detected. The operation is prescribed in case of re-infection with HPV 16 and 18 genotypes, the formation of genital warts and their proliferation, when the papillomas cause discomfort to the patient.
If the multiplication of cancer cells occurs on the cervix, tissue is excised with a high-temperature radio wave or electric knife. The procedure is carried out under local anesthesia, the resulting sample of the material is sent to the laboratory for histological examination.
Even despite the surgical removal of tumor formations, there is a likelihood of a relapse of infection with human papillomavirus and a complicated course of the disease. Excessive sex life increases the chances of a new HPV pathology in the cervix. Re-entry of infection into the body is possible if medical recommendations are not followed after surgery.
Preventive vaccines (Gardasil, Cervarix), specially designed for women with HPV type 16 and 18, are aimed at preventing the development of cancer cells on the cervix by producing antibodies to human papillomavirus. The drugs are injected and contain purified protein material without live pathogens.
The drug treatment regimen is prescribed individually for each patient and comprehensively affects the body. A good result in 80% of cases is shown by a two-component therapy system that combines the use of antiviral drugs (Viferon, Genferon, Allakin-alpha) and surgical removal of genital warts.
The effectiveness of treatment is further enhanced by immunomodulatory drugs, which enhance the production of a special protein in the body that can fight HPV. Pharmaceutical products of this type include Isoprinosine, Immunomax, and Lycopid. It is worth using them only as prescribed by the doctor, since a manifestation of an adverse reaction of the body is possible.
At home, for local treatment of external condylomas and papillomas, ointments Solkoderm, Cryopharma, Verrukatsid are used.
To counter the activation of the virus in the body, it is recommended to get rid of bad habits (smoking, alcohol), exclude the use of fast food, since it contains carcinogens. Improving immunity helps a healthy lifestyle.
- Eat regularly, enrich the diet with healthy foods, take vitamin complexes;
- Do hardening, morning exercises;
- Prevent the transition of diseases to chronic stages;
- Gynecological examinations regularly;
- Carefully choose sexual partners, lead a measured sexual life.
Despite the high oncogenicity of HPV type 16 and 18, the development of cervical cancer in the female body occurs only under concomitant circumstances. It is impossible to completely recover from papillomavirus infection, however, compliance with preventive measures and a healthy lifestyle prevent the formation of a malignant tumor.
Irina, 30 years old:
I was found to have HPV several years ago after giving birth. As the doctor explained to me, the virus was activated against a background of weakened immunity and, most likely, was transmitted from her husband. At first there was a panic, but then my husband and I underwent therapy 3 times and now the tests are negative. Anyway, the virus remained in the body and you need to take a smear for oncocytology every six months to control cell changes.
Marina, 37 years old:
I am being treated for papillomavirus type 16, undergoing a second course of therapy. The gynecologist prescribed to take the tablets "Groprinosin", "Wobenzym", inject "Cycloferon" every other day (a course of 10 injections), hexonic candles. In addition to HPV, chlamydia was detected. Check out soon. Of course, it’s scary to realize that viral cells can grow into a cancerous tumor, so I will be treated in all available ways.