Moles (nevi, as they are called in medicine) belong to benign neoplasms of a congenital or acquired nature. The amount, size and color of the pigment is largely dependent on environmental factors, hereditary predisposition and human health.
The presence of adverse conditions leads to the fact that small age spots begin to grow, transforming into large hanging moles. Neoplasms are white, flesh, brown and even black – this is quite normal. The origin of a mole determines its variety.
Types of neoplasms
- Hanging nevus – This is a skin growth with a tuberous surface. Depending on the etiology, such a mole can be of the following types – acrochordon (soft fibroma), nevus, keratoma, papilloma, neurofibroma.
- Acrochordon – fibrous skin polyp, rounded, soft to the touch, color varies from light to dark tones. There are three types of such neoplasms:
– Small – size up to 0.5 mm, painless, soft growths;
– Threadlike – the polyp has a leg, size from 0.5 mm;
– Large – a polyp with a warty surface up to 2 cm in size.
- Nevus – The second name is mole. It can appear during birth or during life. It is an accumulation of melanocytes in the epidermal layers. Neoplasms are:
– Intradermal – localized in the upper layers of the skin, prone to increase. Usually they have a spherical shape, but sometimes they are converted into hanging “papillae” with a diameter of up to 1 cm;
– Pigmentary or complex – rather dense, convex spherical growths, from which hair often grows. Diameter up to 1 cm;
– Borderline – these are moles up to 5 mm, have clear edges and slightly rise above the skin level.
- Keratoma – seborrheic keratosis. In fact, this is an aging papilloma or wart, which can occur in people over the age of 45 years. The size of the growths varies from 2 mm to 6 cm. The color also varies – from light to dark, almost black shades. Single growths are rare, usually it is a multiple cluster (up to 5-15 elements in one area of the body).
- Papillomas – epidermal growths, outwardly resemble papillae. Color varies from white to dark brown. Diameter up to 2 cm, seeding is multiple and single.
- Neurofibroma – rarely converted into a hanging mole. These are soft growths affecting nerve fibers. Most often located subcutaneously, but sometimes can appear on the surface in the form of hanging papillae.
The cause of the growth
The human body reacts differently to the effects of certain adverse factors, which means that the appearance of hanging moles can be associated with a variety of reasons.
- Acrochordon – appears as a result of regular injuries (for example, friction), endocrine, hormonal imbalance or activation of 6 and 11 HPV strains. Some scientists associate their education with age-related changes in the body.
- Nevus – localization and the number of age spots is formed in utero – a hereditary predisposition plays an important role (if the body of the parents is covered with multiple pigmentation, then in 70% of cases the child will inherit it). Such a neoplasm is growing due to excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as a result of trauma, skin ailments and hormonal disruptions.
- Keratoma – the exact causes to this day are unknown, but there are two versions of their occurrence – genetic tendency and aging of the body.
- Papilloma – a skin growth appears under the action of papillomavirus. Infection causes pathological division of epidermal cells, the consequence is the formation of papillomas. The impetus for the activation of HPV is pregnancy, decreased immunity, stress, diseases of internal organs, close contact with sick people. A woman during menopause is also prone to the formation of various skin growths, this is due to hormonal imbalance.
- Neurofibroma (neurofibromatosis) a hereditary disease or a consequence of mutations at the DNA level.
If you have hanging moles on your body, this is an occasion to consult a doctor – exposure to unfavorable factors can trigger the mechanism of malignancy of the growth (conversion to cancer).
Symptoms of malignancy
Despite the fact that a mole is a benign growth, it is prone to degenerate into a malignant tumor – melanoma or skin cancer.
If your birthmark does not exceed a size of 6 mm, is painless, has clear edges, smooth and soft to the touch, there is nothing to worry about – such a neoplasm is harmless.
If the following symptoms are observed, then, most likely, the body signals a possible degeneration of the mole:
- Intensive growth of pigment (more than 2 mm per year);
- Soreness, swelling, signs of inflammation;
- Rapid change in color, shape, structure of the growth;
- Cracking of the surface, exudation;
- Compaction or excessive softening of the nevus;
- Itching, peeling or suppuration;
- Blurred outlines (without clear boundaries);
- Discoloration of the skin around the nevus.
Wherever hanging moles are located, they cause a lot of discomfort to a person. However, there are parts of the body in which the localization of growths is a danger:
- Groin – here the nevus is often injured by underwear and irritated by the alkaline environment of genital secretions. In addition, the intimate area is often subjected to hair removal, which adversely affects the condition of the mole;
- Neck – hanging growths are exposed to ultraviolet radiation, irritated by the collar of clothes, cling to jewelry. There is a great risk of tearing off the neoplasms and thereby starting the process of malignancy;
- Armpit – mole is subjected to constant friction, locks. Excretions of sweat glands cause irritation, can provoke inflammation and even suppuration of the growth;
- Chest – or rather, under the breast in women. The mole is squeezed, rubbed with a bra. In the summer, this area often stalls, sweat corrodes the growth, causing pain, provokes the development of inflammation. Often, ulcerations are formed under the breast through which the infection penetrates, which is why it is recommended to remove hanging moles in this place.
In general, nevi can be located on any part of the body, and if these are large hanging neoplasms, then they cause significant discomfort:
- Acrochordon – places of localization of the groin, neck, eyelids, back, stomach, armpits;
- Nevuses prone to overgrowth are most often located on the face, chest, neck, sometimes the trunk;
- Keratomas – affect the forearms, hands, face, neck, but most often they can be found on the body;
- Papillomas – love to appear in the armpits, groin, on the neck and face, as well as under the breasts of women;
- Neurofibroma does not have a specific location, it can appear on any part of the body.
There are several ways to get rid of a skin neoplasm – apply laser or radio wave destruction, electrocoagulation, cryotherapy. If, after the diagnosis, the presence of cancer cells is established or the neoplasm exceeds a diameter of 10 mm, surgical excision of the mole (using a scalpel) is performed.
- Laser destruction – the procedure is bloodless, almost painless. It gives good results, leaves no traces, healing only 10 days.
- Radio wave method – healing is quick, there is no blood loss and scarring. There remains a small burn, which disappears after a few days.
- Electrocoagulation – performed under local anesthesia, gives good results, but leaves scars.
- Cryodestruction – Only small growths (up to 5 mm) are subject to freezing. There are no traces after the procedure.
Having established the type and cause of the growth of the mole, the doctor will determine the possible method of removal; it is strictly forbidden to get rid of the growth (without preliminary diagnosis) on your own.