It is easy to become infected with a fungus of the upper extremities by contact with a patient or infected surfaces. The palms often sweat, and moisture is a favorable environment for the life of pathogens of mycosis. The fungus on the hands is localized in the interdigital zone, in the folds of the skin, on the nail plates. Gradually, pathogenic microorganisms occupy new areas, penetrate into the deeper layers of the epidermis. Getting rid of them is becoming increasingly difficult. In order to cure the disease at the initial stage, you need to know what symptoms appear at the first signs of a fungus and how best to deal with it at this moment.
All about mycosis on the hands
The presence of cuts, microcracks, scratches on the hands significantly increases the likelihood of infection by pathogenic microflora. At risk are people who work with aggressive chemicals that cause irritation of the dermis.
Other factors that increase the chances of catching an infection:
- weak immune system;
- circulatory problems;
- diseases accompanied by increased sweating of the palms;
- disruption of the endocrine system;
- hormonal disruptions;
- nervous disorders;
- long-term medication;
- microtrauma of the nail plates, wounds on the skin of the hands.
Types of pathogens of mycosis
The main types of pathogenic microflora that cause mycosis in the hands:
Dermatophytes belong to the fungi Microsporum, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton. They affect the nails, hair. The disease caused by them is called dermatophytosis.
Mold microorganisms form branching mycelia (mycelium) in the upper layers of the epidermis. Representatives: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Dematiaceae. With mycosis of the fingers caused by molds, the subcutaneous fat is primarily affected.
Candida yeast, which affects the mucous membranes, also develops on the hands. He loves a moist environment, therefore, in addition to brushes, often occurs on the feet and in the intimate area. Basically, this infection appears on the fingers and other areas of the skin as a result of earlier onychomycosis.
Symptoms and stages of the disease
Common primary signs of mycosis of the hands have similar manifestations. Initially, spores are localized on the pads of the thumbs, in the folds, at the places of the bends. These areas itch, peeling of the skin begins. Itching becomes stronger at night, does not allow normal sleep. The palms are covered with cracks, with a powdery coating on the edges.
You can distinguish infection from other dermatological problems by changing the state of the skin after caring procedures. If dryness is caused by external factors, the symptoms disappear immediately after moisturizing the dermis. When infected with harmful strains of the fungus, such procedures do not give a result.
With the progression of the disease, epithelial swelling occurs, the skin on the folds becomes more dense, coarsens. The palms turn red, yellowish patches appear. Weeping papules (bubbles with liquid) spread across the entire surface of the hands.
Gradually, mycosis passes to the nail plate. Burrs appear, the cuticle area becomes inflamed. Nails change color; spots appear on them. Further, the plate is stratified, deformed. In the late stage of mycosis, the nails crumble, tear away from their bed.
Fungus of the skin of the hands caused by various pathogens can only be recognized by a doctor. It is difficult for an ordinary person to distinguish between types of diseases among themselves, not to mention the correct choice of a method of therapy.
Signs of infection with different types of fungus
Symptoms of dermatophytosis are specific, therefore it is easy to determine by characteristic signs:
- the appearance of cracks on top or on the back of the palms;
- change in skin tone from pink to yellow;
- peeling, severe dryness of the dermis;
- the formation of watery papules on the hands.
The epidermophytosis of the hands of the intertriginous type appears between the ring finger and the little finger. This type of disease is common in children. Dermatophytosis mainly affects men, in women it is rare.
Sporotrichosis of fingers and nails is caused by mold species of pathogens. Sporotrix is a filamentous fungus that spreads in the form of a mycelium. It is easy for them to get infected when there are scratches on their hands or palms. At the site of the lesion, a bluish tinge appears.
Next, the parasite passes to other parts of the limb, leaving traces in the form of large purple papules. Subsequently, pus accumulates in them. If the disease is not stopped at the initial stage, scars will appear at the site of the formations.
Candidiasis of the hands is more common in the female half of the population. The first signs resemble eczema – a dermatological disease. On the palm of the spores of the fungus fall from the mucous membranes affected by this infection. This is the main route of infection, since the pathogen is localized in these places.
Signs of candidiasis of the hands:
- itchy sensations, burning sensation;
- red rash;
- the formation of follicles with fluid inside;
- in the later stages, ulcers filled with pus appear.
You can see how the symptoms of a certain disease look in the initial and final stages, in the photo below. The signs of mycosis of the hands of different strains are clearly visible in the images. They make it possible to understand how the fungus looks and how it differs from ordinary skin irritation.
Diagnosis and treatment of fungus at home
To make sure there is a fungal infection, you need to visit a dermatologist. He will prescribe effective drugs to quickly get rid of the disease. In addition, the doctor conducts a visual examination, asks the patient about the symptoms, the general condition of the body. After that, biological material is taken for laboratory research.
If a person seeks help at the first sign of mycosis, he is prescribed local antimycotic drugs. In severe cases, treatment with systemic drugs is required, which include broad-spectrum antibiotics. If the nail plate began to die and cannot be restored, it is removed by hardware.
To restore the immune system, the patient is prescribed vitamins, immunomodulators. Sometimes nutritional correction is necessary. To improve the effectiveness of treatment, folk remedies are used.
Means of external use have an antibacterial effect. They destroy the spores of the fungus, prevent the further reproduction of pathogenic microflora. Drugs are available in the following forms:
The composition of antifungal creams often includes substances that restore the skin, improving its appearance. They eliminate peeling, moisturize, increase the elasticity of the dermis.
Hand mycosis treatment takes a long time. The fungus on the palms is not easy to treat, since this part of the body is subjected to regular wetting. Bacteria spread well in a humid environment, so hands should be wetted as little as possible during therapy.
Effective preparations against finger mycosis are such creams:
The most inexpensive and most effective ointments include:
- Liniment Vishnevsky;
Their price ranges from 30-50 rubles. This is a good alternative to expensive drugs that not everyone can afford.
If we are talking about damage to the nails on the fingers, then they are eliminated with the help of medical varnishes:
Therapy with creams and varnishes is carried out until the fungus is completely eliminated. It takes from 2-3 weeks to three months, depending on the severity of the disease.
Ointments and varnishes containing potent substances have side effects. Therefore, you must follow the instructions, do not overexposure them longer than the prescribed time. Among the undesirable reactions, the main place is itching, redness, swelling of the tissues.
An alternative to ointments, creams and varnishes are patches against mycosis of the nail plate and skin on the hands:
Their advantage is that the plate with the active substance completely seals the sore spot. It is continuously exposed to the drug. The keratolytic composition softens the infected layer of tissues, due to which the active substances penetrate their structure better.
The patch is attached for 24-48 hours, after which it is replaced with a new one. This method of therapy quickly stops the inflammatory process, prevents the growth of bacteria. The course of treatment is one to two weeks to a month. The disadvantage of this type of preparation is that with prolonged applications, skin irritations occur. These symptoms disappear after the end of treatment.
With a complex course of the disease, systemic drugs are used. These are pills that affect the whole body as a whole. They destroy the pathogen at the cellular level, strengthen the immune system, have an anti-inflammatory effect.
Popular drugs for oral administration:
These products contain active substances of synthetic origin that destroy most fungal strains and have a potent antifungal effect, so they cure the disease in 10-14 days.
Antibiotics and antimycotics have a large list of contraindications. They are not used in the treatment of children, pregnant. During therapy, side effects are possible. With undesirable manifestations in the form of nausea, vomiting, fever, it is necessary to notify the doctor about this.
Alternative medicine has extensive experience in the treatment of fungal diseases. Means prepared according to her recipes, well eliminate negative symptoms, improve the appearance of the skin on the hands. They are used both for treatment and for prevention. The following are suitable as active components:
- garlic, onion;
- vinegar, iodine, hydrogen peroxide;
- essential oils;
- medicinal plants (calendula, St. John's wort, tansy, celandine).
A three percent hydrogen peroxide solution is poured into a container of warm water. An antiseptic is taken at a rate of 30 ml per liter of water. Hands are lowered into the bath, held for 25-20 minutes. After the infected tissue is treated with topical antimycotics.
Iodine softens the nail plate, enhances the penetration of antifungal agents inside. This slows down the infection of healthy cells. It can be replaced with copper sulfate, which is also used against mycosis. The substance is mixed with water in equal proportions and applied to affected skin.
Onions and garlic are natural antibiotics that stop inflammation. Juice from these plants helps eliminate fungus, disinfects the surface of the skin. Freshly squeezed liquid lubricates the affected areas, leave for 10-15 minutes. Then the residual substance is removed with warm water.
Effective against the fungus compress from the pulp of chopped garlic, onions. It is applied to the skin of the hands, fixed with a bandage. After 20-30 minutes, clean.
Trays with a decoction of herbs have an antifungal effect. Take a teaspoon of each ingredient (calendula flowers, celandine, St. John's wort), 250 ml of water is brewed. After half an hour, when the mixture is infused, it is poured into warm water (1 liter). Hands are held in this solution for 25-30 minutes.