Diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection is of great importance for its timely detection. Infection is most often transmitted through sexual contact, intrauterine or hematological method, as well as through the household. Its identification plays a big role for the patient, as it can cause severe illnesses.
One of the most reliable methods for this was PCR diagnostics, which helps to find any type of HPV in a person, as it is a highly accurate method for identifying its causative agent.
The essence of PCR
The use of the polymerase chain reaction to determine infection in the blood or other biomaterial is one of the most reliable modern studies. It is important that the analysis can evaluate both the qualitative and quantitative presence of the virus in the human body. Moreover, the disease does not always immediately develop in full force.
Such a diagnostic method is very important. PCR is based on the fact that it allows the detection of DNA or RNA of the pathogen. A special analyzer quickly detects even a negligible amount of infection.
Determining the genotype of a virus helps not only establish its presence, but also accurately classify it. In total, there are 70 strains of the HPV pathogen and not all of them have the same degree of danger.
No less important for a specialist is quantitative analysis. It makes it possible to assess the stage of infection in the patient's body.
Indications for the study
Typically, a polymerase chain reaction is prescribed after a thorough gynecological examination. If the doctor notices the presence of genital warts, inflamed areas, genital warts, papillomas or other neoplasms, then he will certainly suspect the patient is infected with HPV of high oncogenicity.
There are situations when people do not even suspect that they have developed an infection. Therefore, the planned analysis is of great importance. Especially important in the absence of visible manifestations of the human papillomavirus can provide a polymerase chain reaction.
This infection is especially dangerous for women. It is they who are most often sent for analysis to identify it.
Usually, the doctor recommends a study on the human papillomavirus in case of:
- unprotected sex with an unfamiliar partner;
- suspected cervical pathology;
- routine examination;
- the presence of erosion;
- verification of a positive result for the presence of HPV high oncogenic risk;
- detection of neoplasia;
- the development of cancer;
- monitoring the results of treatment;
- monitoring a patient infected with human papillomavirus;
- obtaining dubious results for the presence of a malignant formation on the genitals;
- STI infection
- registration in the antenatal clinic;
- pregnancy planning, etc.
Most often, a study is aimed at detecting HPV. No less important, especially when preparing for pregnancy or when registering with a antenatal clinic, is information about the absence of virus DNA in the biomaterial.
Of greatest importance is PCR diagnostics for determining the types of human papillomavirus high carcinogenic risk and a quantitative analysis of its content.
The method of sampling biomaterial for research
PCR is very fast and completely painless for patients. Usually it requires genital discharge in women or the urethra in men.
They are collected by a nurse or doctor in a sterile treatment room.
A smear can be taken instantly and immediately sent for laboratory analysis. In order for the proposed diagnosis to be completely reliable, first the research area is completely disinfected with special solutions. The doctor inserts a special instrument into the woman’s vagina about one centimeter and carefully passes it along all the walls of the cervix.
The detachable substance is carefully removed, placed on the walls of a separate tube and marked in a special way. Then the courier picks her up and takes her to the laboratory for research.
Sometimes the patient is also examined for blood, but a similar method is less accurate, since then they look for antibodies that do not always appear immediately after infection with the human papillomavirus. Its antigen is determined in a smear immediately after infection.
Preparation for PCR
In order for the results of the study to be completely reliable, it is necessary to carefully prepare for it.
To do this, you need:
- do not urinate for three hours before visiting a clinic or laboratory;
- two days before the analysis to prevent sexual contacts;
- do not douche;
- do not enter vaginal suppositories;
- do not use local medicines;
- refuse to take antiviral drugs, except for those that are not subject to cancellation or approved by the attending physician;
- come to take a smear during the absence of menstruation;
- after its completion must pass at least three days.
Requirements for the choice of a medical institution
Such a study should be done at least once every three years. A similar period is due to the period that HPV takes to activate in the body, causing severe pathology.
In order to undergo an analysis, you should contact a medical institution that has an excellent reputation. Obtaining false results threatens the patient with dangerous diseases that can lead to death.
The smear should be taken in compliance with all requirements for the procedure. The full sterility of the cabinet and medical instruments plays a huge role. The slightest violation of it can have very serious consequences.
Therefore, take the biomaterial for research should be a qualified, experienced specialist who has all the necessary licenses and certificates.
The price of analysis for the human papillomavirus is quite high and ranges from 300 to 1500 rubles. The cost of the study depends on the method of its implementation.
If a qualitative determination of the presence of HPV can cost 290 rubles, then at least 600 rubles will have to be paid for its quantitative analysis. If typing of the detected virus is required, then the price will increase to 800-1.5 thousand rubles, depending on the completeness and direction of analysis.
It is very important for a specialist to get all the required qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the pathogen on time in order to prevent the development of cancer.