The human papilloma virus is widespread among people, it is diagnosed in more than half of all women, but the disease does not bypass men. As a result of the activity of the pathology, condylomas appear on the skin, most often they are noticeable in the inguinal region.
In rare cases, formations form on other parts of the body, such as the face, chest, and armpits. Condylomas also sometimes develop on the mucous membrane of the mouth. There are many types of human papillomavirus. All of them are united by the fact that they cause the appearance of genital warts.
Types of genital warts
Condylomas are growths that form on the surface of the skin. Since most often they appear in the anogenital and inguinal areas, it is much easier for men to notice the disease than for women. The latter learn about HPV only after visiting a specialist. It determines what kind of condylomas belong.
Existing types of entities:
- Papular. Form a shape similar to a dome. The surface is smooth, reddish;
- Flat spotted. They do not protrude on the skin, which is why this species is very difficult to notice. They appear on the head of the penis in men and on the cervix in women. As they develop, they creep under the skin;
- Hyperkeratotic. They are able to overlap each other, form scales in the genitals. Gradually, horny matter is produced, which leads to keratinization.
- Large. This species develops during pregnancy;
- Endourethral. Localized in the urethra. In women, this type is practically not found, it usually affects men.
There are three types of genital warts that affect only the uterus. The appearance is not different from other genital manifestations. Warty condylomas are painted in a pink-red hue, the surface is flat, with a warty texture. On the walls of the uterus or the cervix itself, an internal type is formed. Such condylomas are malignant, while it is impossible to see them with the naked eye.
The most common type is spiky. It is also called typical. Similar formations can appear in a representative of any gender. They affect the perianal zone and genitals. Genital warts are flesh-colored, their structure is lobed.
The main reasons for the development
The causes of genital warts vary depending on the gender of the person. For example, in women, the disease often develops against a background of weakened immunity, vaginal dysbiosis and the period of gestation. Although the etiological factor provoking unpleasant symptoms remains the papillomatous virus, its presence in the human body does not guarantee the manifestation of symptoms.
In order for the disease to gain vivid clinical manifestations, certain factors must provoke it. If the man’s immune system is fully functioning, the virus will not manifest itself. The onset of symptoms is often caused by:
- Concomitant pathologies, due to which immunodeficiency develops;
- Improper nutrition, lack of vitamins and other beneficial substances;
- Bad habits, such as drug use, smoking and drinking alcohol;
- Sleep problems, including lack of sleep and constant tension;
- The use of hormonal drugs;
- Temperature extremes, prolonged exposure to too high or too low temperatures.
Most often, the virus is transmitted sexually, however, sexual contact is not necessary for infection, as a common way of transmission is possible. The pathogen is able to infect through cosmetic and hygiene products, towels, bedding and any other personal belongings of the patient.
Why do condylomas develop in women?
Condylomas in women are spread for the same reasons as in men – against the background of problems with the immune system. However, this occurs under the influence of other factors.
Where do condylomas in women come from:
- Immunity is weakened against the background of emotional stress, exposure to stress;
- Medications, especially antibacterial drugs, are negatively affected.
- Indiscriminate women are much more at risk of catching the disease;
- The onset of symptoms is enhanced by the presence of third-party sexually transmitted diseases. Among them are fungal pathologies, gonorrhea and chlamydia. Also dangerous are chronic infections;
- Dietary problems, which include not only an unbalanced diet, but also too strong restrictions, are also a risk factor;
- Abortion seriously affects the body, undermining the immune system. Similar happens during pregnancy and the period of feeding, at which time condylomas may appear;
- The postpartum period is associated with nervous and physical exhaustion, often accompanied by hormonal changes and a lack of vitamins, which adversely affects the protective abilities of the body.
Barrier contraceptives cannot fully protect a person from transmission of the virus. In addition to the genitals themselves, the pathogen is located on neighboring tissues. Contact with them will also cause infection, and condoms are unable to cover this area.
Possible sites of infection
Most often, infection occurs through sexual contact. To reduce this likelihood, it is best to have a permanent partner or to limit sexual relations only to those people who have recently been tested for papillomavirus. Kisses are also a means of transmission.
The cause of the pathology is sometimes hidden in public places. For example, a pool in which sanitary standards are violated may become a source of the disease. In the case of baths and saunas, the danger is not so high, since the pathogen does not withstand high temperatures. Public toilets should always be used with caution, since numerous microorganisms develop there, not only the human papillomavirus.
Genital warts have a long incubation period. Since it is almost impossible to determine the exact date of infection, determining exactly how this happened is also problematic. Moreover, the identification of the cause is very important for the subsequent treatment of the disease.
In addition to sexual and contact methods of infection, there is a risk of transmission of the virus during childbirth. If the fetus passes through the birth canal of a woman at a time when condylomas will be present on their mucous membranes, then the child may become ill. A similar pattern of transmission of pathology is called vertical.
Of all the existing types of papillomavirus, about 15 species lead to the formation of genital warts. Among these 15 variants, 90% of cases are in strains numbered 6 and 11. However, infection does not guarantee the development of formations; in most cases, the infected person does not show any symptoms.
After the pathogen has appeared in the human body, it will never be able to completely leave it. The patient becomes a lifelong carrier and a source of infection. Despite the frequent absence of symptoms, it is important for women to identify the disease in a timely manner, since it provokes cancerous degeneration.
Fortunately, genital warts appear on the background of the activity of the virus with low oncogenicity. This indicator indicates the ability of the pathogen to influence the development of cancer, namely cervical cancer. Low oncogenicity indicates a slight increase in risk, but this risk is still present.
It is not difficult to diagnose papillomavirus, for this it is enough to undergo a colposcopy procedure. Surgical removal of genital warts can not completely save a person from the disease. Often after such procedures, symptoms in the future return. For treatment, complex therapy is needed, which includes exposure to the virus and the immune system. For a favorable outcome, it is necessary to deal with the disease before the lesions degenerate into malignant.