Papillomavirus has not yet been fully studied, but today it is known that the disease belongs to a number of chronic ailments, which cannot be completely cured. There are a number of factors that provoke the activation of human papillomavirus infection in the human body and the appearance of its symptoms – various benign neoplasms.
The growths on the body basically do not cause discomfort and are mostly a cosmetic defect, but under the influence of adverse living conditions they can develop into oncology.
Papillomavirus infection routes
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is divided into 100 types and each of them has a unique DNA structure. The disease enters the body:
- by touching an infected object in public places;
- from mother to baby during pregnancy or breastfeeding;
- during unprotected intercourse (genital warts).
The likelihood of HPV infection increases:
- the presence of skin lesions;
- seasonal weakening of the immune system;
- the presence of skin diseases (fungus, eczema);
- diabetes of any type.
In medical practice, people with cancer of the genitals, cervix, bladder, and skin are very common. The cause of oncology in these cases are papillomas.
When can a wart develop into cancer?
The process of transformation of the growth into a cancerous tumor occurs under the influence of adverse living conditions:
- unsuccessful attempts to independently remove the wart;
- accidental damage to the papilloma (friction against clothing, jewelry);
- sunburn of the skin;
- exposure to the infected area of the epidermis with ultraviolet rays;
- getting into the wart of pathogenic microflora;
- improper removal of growth in beauty salons.
There are a number of circumstances in which the risk of a wart degenerating into cancer increases significantly:
- chronic diseases of internal organs;
- alcohol abuse;
- drug addiction;
An incorrect lifestyle, combined with various adverse factors, increases the chances of turning any, even the most inconspicuous growth into oncology. However, this does not mean that a person who does not have bad habits may not be afraid of the appearance of cancerous tumors. The transition of a benign neoplasm into a malignant one is impossible to control. Therefore, it is very important to diagnose papillomavirus at an early stage and consult a doctor in a timely manner.
A wart has turned into cancer: symptoms
Any kind of oncological processes on the skin begins to appear at the site of localization of the growth. Subsequently, in the absence of the necessary treatment, the patient worsens overall well-being. A cancerous tumor can develop very slowly and cannot be diagnosed on its own.
Unlike internal oncology, malignancy of the wart is always accompanied by pronounced external symptoms. Deterioration of general health can occur only when cancer can no longer be cured.
There are two types of cancer symptoms;
- are common.
Local symptoms include:
- damage to the growth that does not heal for a long time;
- discoloration, wart shape;
- redness, severe itching around the affected area of the skin;
- neoplasm bleeding;
- peeling of the upper epidermal layers.
Common symptoms of the development of oncology are:
- lack of appetite;
- constant feeling of tiredness;
- decrease in fat mass;
- causeless jumps in body temperature (from 37.5 degrees);
Stage of development of cancer
The transformation of a conventional wart into oncology consists of several stages:
- initial stage – the tumor develops inside the growth and can be easily removed with it;
- the first stage – cancer cells penetrate into the layers of the dermis by about 2 mm, and the growth increases in size to 2 centimeters;
- the second stage – the tumor grows to 3-4 centimeters, and also penetrates into all epidermal layers;
- the third stage (progressive) – oncology affects nearby lymph nodes;
- the last stage – the patient reveals cancer metastases in bone tissue and nearby organs (brain, lungs, liver, etc.).
Between the initial and last stages, it can take from 3 months to several years. The life expectancy of a patient with oncology is affected by his state of health and body stability. When diagnosing a late stage of melanoma (malignancy of moles) and cancerous warts, some patients can live 2-3 years and only 50% of cancer patients cross the five-year mark.
Timely diagnosis of oncology allows you to establish at what stage of development the malignant wart is located, and determine the necessary course of treatment. Today, medicine has a large set of diagnostic techniques that will help confirm (or refute) the development of a cancerous tumor and recognize its classification.
Diagnosis of the oncological process is divided into three types:
- initial examination by a doctor;
- laboratory research methods;
- instrumental diagnostics.
Examination of the skin
If any external symptoms of malignancy of the papilloma are detected, you should immediately consult an oncologist who will examine the skin and say that it is a cancerous wart or a simple inflammation of the growth.
If skin cancer is suspected, a specialist will prescribe a series of laboratory tests and select the necessary treatment, depending on the stage of the disease.
At the initial stage of the appearance of cancer, it is very difficult to distinguish a simple wart from melanoma and other oncopathogenic growths. Therefore, the doctor must use a special device – a dermatoscope. With its help, one can more carefully discern the structure of the neoplasm. After the initial examination, the dermatologist is required to take samples of the damaged dermis (biopsy). This can be done with a special needle, scalpel or tweezers. The taken wart cells are sent to the laboratory, where they are examined under a microscope.
Instrumental diagnostic technique
Instrumental diagnostic methods include:
- Magnetic resonance imaging;
- ultrasound examination of the lymph nodes.
They help to find out the depth of germination of a malignant formation and detect metastases in nearby organs and bone tissues.
The most accurate method of research was positron emission tomography, in which a special drug with radionuclides is introduced into the patient's body. Radionuclides decay and are localized in cancer cells. Further, when conducting a body scan, the doctor can see areas of the dermis affected by oncology. On the tomogram they are visible as illuminated spots.
Cancer detected, how to treat?
Unfortunately, it is impossible to cure a neglected cancer with the help of medications and traditional medicine. Any procrastination and experimentation with various non-traditional methods of getting rid of oncology can be fatal.
Treatment in the initial and first stages of cancer
At the initial and first stages of the development of a malignant tumor, the wart is excised under local anesthesia. In some cases, according to the doctor's testimony, the patient is prescribed general anesthesia.
After an injection of an anesthetic, the surgeon removes the growth with an electric loop-shaped instrument or a medical scalpel. Next, the cut wart is sent for laboratory research. If the tumor is surrounded by a healthy epidermis, then the operation is considered successful.
In the event that cancer cells remained on the wart section, the patient once again cure the postoperative wound. This makes it possible to completely clear the localization site of a malignant neoplasm from particles of oncopathogenic dermis.
The second, third and last stage of oncology
With the defeat of the lymph nodes and the appearance of cancer metastases in the internal organs, the patient is removed malignant formations only under general anesthesia. During the operation, the doctor removes the wart along with part of the subcutaneous tissue.
Further, the surgeon excludes metastases in the lymph nodes and other affected organs. To consolidate the result, the patient is prescribed a course of radiation therapy. This precaution will prevent the recurrence of cancer.
At the initial stage of the formation of a cancerous tumor, you can get rid of it with chemotherapy. This method of treatment is based on the use of toxins and toxic substances that inhibit the activity of cancer cells and prevent their subsequent reproduction.
The use of chemotherapy is relevant in some cases:
- when a malignant growth can be cured with topical preparations;
- with relapse of oncology;
- when removing large tumors by administering chemotherapy intravenously;
- when a cancer patient refuses surgical intervention;
- in case of multiple relapse of skin cancer in the third and last stage.