Today, pharmacies sell a lot of different products that effectively fight fungal infections. Among them, antibiotics occupy a separate niche. They are used only in advanced stages, at the initial stage their use is impractical. It is impossible to prescribe yourself any drug from this category, since it can aggravate the situation and harm the body. That is why, before taking antibiotics, you need to visit a doctor who will identify the cause of the disease and prescribe adequate treatment.
Types of Antifungal Antibiotics
All antimycotic drugs differ from each other in chemical composition and spectrum of action. Based on these data, they are divided into several groups:
- Polyenes – have fungicidal properties, the fungus is destroyed due to the destruction of the membrane;
- Nonpolyenes – inhibit DNA synthesis of pathogenic cells;
- Echinocandins are powerful drugs that cope with a large number of pathogens. Block the synthesis of the cell membrane and successfully fight Candida fungi;
- Azoles – destroy existing pathogens, resist the emergence of new ones;
- Allylamines – have a fungicidal effect. Thanks to their use, living microorganisms die, but new ones do not appear;
- Triazoles – contain fluconazole, which is prescribed to combat yeast fungi.
Polyenes are used in the treatment of various pathogens of fungal diseases, mainly the simplest trichomonads, Candida, etc. They do not affect the functioning of the body and do not have a negative effect on internal organs.
Polyene products include:
- Amphotericin B – An inexpensive drug prescribed for advanced mycosis. Available in dry mass for solution preparation. The active component destroys the integrity of the membranes, due to which the cells die. The drug is administered intravenously 1 time per day. The price of one bottle is from 45 rubles .;
- Natamycin – kills yeast fungi, is used to treat advanced candidiasis and mycosis, but does not eliminate systemic infections. Scheme of admission – 1 tablet four times a day, for one week. The cost is about 450 rubles. The active substance natamycin is found in drugs such as ecofucin, pimafucin and primafungin;
- Nystatin – the active component is introduced into the molecules of the cells, inhibits the biosynthesis of enzymes, because of which the water metabolism is disrupted and they die. Effective for Candida fungi and mycoses, which are caused by aspergillus. The drug is available in the form of tablets, ointments against fungus and suppositories. 1 tablet is taken three times a day. The course of therapy is 2 weeks. The average price for a package is 50 rubles;
- Levorin – the antibiotic causes uncontrolled permeability of the cell membranes, as a result of which the fungal cells die. It is prescribed for candidiasis of the mucous membrane, skin, nails and genitals. The patient should take 1 pill up to 4 times a day for 12 days. Price – from 90 rubles.
It should be borne in mind that antibiotics from the polyene series are not always effective against dermatophytes and microspores. Basically, Nystatin is used to treat onychomycosis. The tool is always on sale and is actively fighting yeast fungi – common pathogens. The remaining antibiotics from the list above more effectively eliminate skin mycoses that affect the feet than nail fungus.
Medicines in this group work by violating the DNA of fungal cells. Representatives of non-polyene antibiotics include Griseofulvin, which has a wide spectrum of action. The drug destroys mycosporia, trichophytes and dermatophytes. With a toenail fungus, you need to drink 5 tablets a day for a month. The drug is prescribed in severe stages of the disease, but does not cure candidiasis.
Drugs in this category are well tolerated by patients, eliminate most of the pathogens and have a powerful effect, especially against Candida fungi. Echinocandins inhibit the activity and growth of pathogenic microorganisms, causing their death.
The group includes only two names of antibiotics:
- Anidulafungin (Eraxis) – active in invasive candidiasis, onychomycosis. You can not take pregnant women, children under 18 years old and people with liver disease;
- Caspofungin (Cancidas) – It is prescribed for the treatment of a severe form of the fungus, droppers are placed on its basis.
A group of drugs destroys a large number of fungi. Azoles are popular in dermatology due to their effectiveness. These include such means:
- Ketoconazole – active against fungi that cause mycosis of the skin, hair and nails, streptococci and staphylococci. Available in the form of tablets, cream, vaginal suppositories and shampoo. The drug is prescribed for recurrent fungus with a large area of damage. The treatment lasts 2-6 weeks. Up to 3 tablets should be taken per day and the same amount used in local forms of medicine;
- Itraconazole – effectively fights with many known types of fungus. The drug is used in pulse therapy. In this case, the patient needs to drink pills for a week, then take a break for the same period, and resume the course again. The tool helps against nail fungus caused by mold, yeast and yeast-like fungi. Available in the form of dragees, ointments and suppositories. The course of treatment for onychomycosis is not more than 9 months;
- Mycozoral – an ointment with an antibiotic and antifungal effect is prescribed for onychomycosis, infection of the skin of the legs and hands. The drug contains ketoconazole, which stops the synthesis of elements that are involved in the emergence of cell walls, due to which fungi cannot develop and die. Mycosis of the skin is treated for a month, the ointment is applied to the site of infection 1 time per day. With nail fungus, it must be used twice a day for 30-60 days;
- Nizoral – the drug fights dermatophytes and yeast fungi. The active component kills the pathogen by disrupting its membrane. Adult patients take a tablet per day. For prevention, the drug is prescribed at the rate of up to 8 mg per kilogram of weight. The course of treatment for infections of the skin of the feet is 1 month, with onychomycosis – up to a year.
They have a fungicidal effect, destroying pathogenic microorganisms that have already appeared, and also preventing the development of new ones. Preparations from this group are synthetic, they are based on chemicals.
- Naphthyne. Struggles with many types of pathogenic microflora. The drug is used topically, effective for onychomycosis and skin candidiasis, creates a high concentration of the main component with weekly use. The course of therapy should not exceed 2 months. The cream is applied to the skin once a day, and with nail damage – twice a day;
- Terbinafine. Kills almost all types of pathogens. Available in the form of a cream, spray, ointment and tablets. The duration of use depends on the stage of the disease, therefore it is determined by the doctor, but is no more than 12 weeks;
- Lamisil. It is a wide range fungicide in the form of a spray. The drug kills yeast, mold fungi and dermatophytes. Its components disrupt the metabolism in the cells of pathogens, but do not affect the processes in the human body. Spray process the affected areas no more than 2 times a day. The course of treatment is up to 1 month;
- Exoderyl. Its active component prevents the formation of cell walls in the structure of fungal infection. Ointment and spray have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The cream is applied topically to the full growth of a healthy nail and another 2 weeks to prevent relapse.
A prominent representative of triazoles is the synthetic drug Fluconazole, which fights onychomycosis and foot fungus caused by yeast.
The following drugs were included in the list of other drugs in this category:
- Flucostat – capsules are used to eliminate pathogenic microflora on the feet, nails and mucous membranes. The drug causes many side effects, therefore it is not recommended for children under the age of three. Reception scheme – 1 pc. per day for a month;
- Diflucan – a potent broad-spectrum antifungal antibiotic that inhibits the metabolism in fungal cells, which is why they die, and new ones do not form. With onychomycosis, 1 tablet is indicated for 7 days, the course is 3-12 months;
- Mycosyst – active against yeast and dermatophytes. The drug is available in the form of capsules for internal use. Scheme of use – 1 pc. once a week. The course of therapy is six months.
Almost all antifungal antibiotics have limitations on their use. They are taken strictly according to the instructions in order to avoid unpleasant consequences.
The main contraindications:
- Allergy to active ingredients. In such cases, the patient should abandon both the tablets and the funds intended for external use;
- Existing gastrointestinal diseases. Antibiotics are very dangerous for problems with the stomach, intestines;
- Hepatic or renal pathology.
Pregnant women are strictly prohibited antibiotics. If the fungus does not rest, you can use a proven tool – sulfuric ointment. It is used to treat allergies, expectant mothers and children over 3 years old.
Consequences of self-treatment
Many people buy antibiotics without medical advice, thereby harming their body, and the disease remains untreated. Experts say that therapy with such medications is appropriate in two cases:
- The advanced stage with the addition of a secondary infection. Here, treatment is needed aimed at the destruction of a concomitant disease, and not the pathogen itself;
- Pathology is caused by Candida fungi. In this case, antibiotics of the polyene series are prescribed.
If a person decides to independently treat, he should be prepared for the following consequences:
- allergy – when the patient has an individual intolerance to the composition of antibiotics, the use of such drugs will adversely affect his state of health;
- renal, liver failure – these organs suffer more than others, as they are involved in drug processing;
- violation of the digestive system;
- failures in the central nervous system.