Anogenital warts affect the region of the external and internal genital organs. Develop at any age in both men and women. The real reason for their appearance is human papillomavirus infection. The appearance of specific benign lesions on the genitals leads to infection with virus types 6, 11, 16, 18. The last two doctors consider to be dangerous for cancer, which can provoke cervical cancer in women and other malignant diseases.
Clinical features of the disease
A characteristic feature of this disease is the sexual transmission of infection. The virus is very contagious, easily transmitted by contact of the mucous membranes through epithelium microcracks.
From the moment of infection and the first manifestations of the disease can be a long period of time – several months or years. The virus is localized in the cells of the epithelium, but the immune forces of the body block its activity. A person, unaware of the HPV carrier state, can transmit it to his sexual partners.
A weakening of the immune system can trigger reproduction of the virus:
- During the period of acute respiratory diseases;
- After surgery;
- Severe stress, physical fatigue;
- During pregnancy.
Genital warts are classified as follows:
- Genital papillomas or condylomas – relief rapidly expanding growths with a loose texture, have finger-like or papillary protrusions, multiple formations often merge into conglomerates resembling a rooster crest or cauliflower.
- Papular formations – rounded pigmented outgrowths of dense consistency, with hyperkeratosis of the surface, are more likely to be isolated;
- Warts in the form of spots – gray, whitish, red, brown shades, not rising above the surface of the epithelial tissue;
- Intraepithelial implasia (Boven’s disease) – affects the entire thickness of the mucosa, form multi-colored papules, spots with a velvety structure. This type of warts is more susceptible to cancer.
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Genital warts in men are located in the preputial area. The head and body of the penis, the inner shell of the foreskin, the opening of the urethra, the scrotum, the perineum are affected.
In women, the localization is the pubis, the surface of the large and small labia, the clitoris, the vagina, the cervix.
Condylomas and spotted formations are localized on the mucous membranes, whereas papules germinate mainly on the skin of the genitals.
In the perianal region, anogenital warts grow in people who practice anal sex.
Symptoms of the disease varied. Clinical signs are not present at all, have different intensity. Burning, itching, irritation of the affected area, bleeding, smelly discharge, discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse are likely.
Anogenital venereal warts are diagnosed in several ways:
- Inspection: visual, using a mirror, otoscope, anoscope;
- Samples with acetic acid solution;
- Histological examination;
- Neoplasm tissue biopsy.
Anogenital warts are similar in appearance to the normal physiological conditions of the genital organs: the sebaceous glands, the micro-papilomatosis of the mucous membrane of the labia in the women, or the papular necklace of the head of the penis in men.
In these cases, on the epithelial surface are found small symmetrically arranged papules of the correct form, not causing any discomfort. Sometimes these individual characteristics of the body are taken for a venereal disease.
Differentiation is necessary to exclude the incidence of contagious mollusks, seborrheic keratosis, the manifestations of which are similar to anogenital warts.
The confirmed diagnosis serves as a Viennese reason for the suspension of sexual activity and detailed examination for STDs.
Treatment of anogenital warts
Methods of complete destruction of the papilloma virus in the body, medicine does not yet know. With the help of treatment, it is possible to achieve the suppression of its activity and eliminate the warts that have already appeared.
In smokers, anogenital warts cannot be cured.
Applied medical and operational methods of getting rid of tumors. The choice of treatment for genital warts depends on their morphological features, localization sites, and prevalence.
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Drugs used on an outpatient basis:
- Podofilotoksin in the form of a solution or cream – lubricate the lesions twice a day for 3 days, the treatment is carried out in 4-7 days, the cream is applied to the skin, the liquid preparation is applied to the mucous membranes.
- Imiquimod cream applied to the warts 3 times a week, a full course of treatment provides from 8 to 12 weeks of treatment.
- Ointments based on recombinant human interferon and ascorbic acid: Altevir, Viferon, Roferon A. Enhance local immunity, are used for condylomatosis combined with herpetic lesions. Used several times a day for 4-8 weeks.
Local remedies can be used at home in the presence of small lesions and no signs of malignancy.
Severe forms of genital papillomatosis are treated only in a clinical setting. Removal of anogenital warts is carried out with the use of chemicals and hardware exposure.
The main methods of drug therapy:
- Application of 80% solution of triacetic acid. The tool is used to treat single papules or warts of small and medium size. It is applied once. Under the influence of acid, the growth is necrotized and is rejected after some time. The use of the drug requires caution, since in case of accidental contact with healthy tissue it causes severe chemical burns.
- Burning Solkoderm containing nitric, oxalic, lactic acid and copper nitrate. A few days after the first application, the product can be reused.
Use of these drugs is allowed only in clinics. Independent use is unacceptable.
Simultaneously with local treatment, intravenous administration of interferons blocking the activity of the papillomavirus is practiced.
Extensive lesions are subject to hardware destruction. Applicable methods:
- Electrocoagulation – cutting off anogenital warts with a metal loop under the influence of an electric current;
- Radio wave treatment – destruction of the tissues of neoplasms by an ionizing radiation apparatus, used to remove cancer-related growths;
- Vaporization with a carbon dioxide laser is the most acceptable and painless method for eliminating warts in the urethra, cervix, reducing the risk of recurrence.
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On average, the recurrence rate of anogenital papillomatosis is 20%. After completing the course of treatment, the infected person should have information about how the disease is transmitted and developed.
It is necessary to streamline the sex life, use means of barrier protection during sexual intercourse. It is desirable to get rid of bad habits. Inflammatory and infectious pathologies should not be triggered. It is useful to conduct preventive therapy, taking immunomodulatory and vitamin-mineral complexes.