Anogenital warts affect the area of the external and internal genital organs. Develop at any age in both men and women. The true reason for their appearance is human papillomavirus infection. The appearance of specific benign formations on the genitals is caused by infection with types of the virus 6, 11, 16, 18. The last two doctors consider them to be cancer hazardous, capable of provoking cervical cancer in women and other malignant diseases.
Clinical features of the disease
A characteristic feature of this disease is the sexual transmission of infection. The virus is very contagious, easily transmitted by contact of the mucous membranes through microcracks of the epithelium.
From the moment of infection and the first manifestations of the disease, a long period of time can be possible – several months or years. The virus is localized in the cells of the prosky epithelium, but the body's immune forces block its activity. A person, unaware of the carriage of HPV, can pass it on to his sexual partners.
Reproduction of the virus can be triggered by a weakening of the immune system:
- during acute respiratory infections;
- after surgery;
- severe stress, physical overwork;
- during pregnancy.
Genital warts are classified as follows:
- Pointed papillomas or condylomas are prominent fast-growing growths with a loose texture, have finger-shaped or papillary protrusions, multiple formations often merge into conglomerates resembling a crest of a rooster or cauliflower.
- Papular formations – rounded pigmented growths of dense consistency, with surface hyperkeratosis, are more often single;
- Warts in the form of spots – gray, whitish, red, brown, not rising above the surface of the epithelial tissue;
- Intraepithelial implasion (Boven's disease) – affects the entire thickness of the mucosa, form multi-colored papules, spots with a velvety structure. This type of wart is more susceptible to cancer formation than others.
Genital warts in men are located in the preputial region. The head and body of the penis, the inner shell of the foreskin, the opening of the urethra, scrotum, and perineum are affected.
In women, the localization sites are the pubis, the surface of the labia minora and labia minora, the clitoris, the vagina, and the cervix.
Condylomas and spotted formations are localized on the mucous membranes, while papules germinate mainly on the skin of the genitals.
In the perianal region, anogenital warts grow in people who have anal sex.
The symptomatology of the disease is diverse. Clinical signs are not present at all, have different intensities. The appearance of burning, itching, irritation in the affected area, bleeding, foul-smelling discharge, discomfort and soreness during sexual contact is likely.
Anogenital venereal warts are diagnosed in several ways:
- inspection: visual, using a mirror, otoscope, anoscope;
- samples with acetic acid solution;
- histological examination;
- tissue biopsy of the tumor.
Anogenital warts are similar in appearance to the normal physiological conditions of the genital organs: sebaceous glands, micropapillomatosis of the mucous membrane of the labia in women or a papular necklace of the penis in men.
In these cases, on the epithelial surface, small symmetrically located papules of a regular shape are found that do not cause any discomfort. Sometimes these individual characteristics of the body are mistaken for a sexually transmitted disease.
Differentiation is necessary to exclude the incidence of molluscum contagiosum, seborrheic keratosis, the manifestations of which are similar to anogenital warts.
The confirmed diagnosis serves as the Vienna reason for the suspension of sexual activity and a detailed examination for STDs.
Treatment of anogenital warts
Medicine does not yet know the methods for the complete destruction of the papilloma virus in the body. With the help of treatment, it is possible to suppress its activity and eliminate already existing warts.
Medical and surgical methods of getting rid of neoplasms are used. The choice of treatment for brilliant warts depends on their morphological features, places of localization, prevalence.
Medications used on an outpatient basis:
- Podophyllotoxin in the form of a solution or cream – lubricate the lesions twice a day for 3 days, treatment is carried out in 4-7 days, the cream is applied to the skin, a liquid preparation to the mucous membranes.
- Imiquimod cream is applied to warts 3 times a week, the full course provides from 8 to 12 weeks of treatment.
- Ointments based on recombinant human interferon and ascorbic acid: Altevir, Viferon, Roferon A. Strengthen local immunity, are used for condylomatosis, combined with herpetic lesions. Used several times a day for 4-8 weeks.
Local remedies can be used at home if there are small lesions and no signs of malignancy.
Severe forms of genital papillomatosis are treated only in a clinical setting. Removal of anogenital warts is carried out using chemicals and hardware exposure.
The main ways drug therapies:
- Application of an 80% solution of triacetic acid. The drug is used to treat single papules or small and medium sized warts. It is applied once. Under the influence of acid, the growth is necrotic and after some time is rejected. The use of the drug requires caution, as it causes severe chemical burns if it accidentally enters into healthy tissues.
- Burning with Solcoderm containing nitric, oxalic, lactic acid and copper nitrate. A few days after the first application, it is possible to reuse the product.
Along with local treatment, intravenous administration of interferons blocking the activity of the papilloma virus is practiced.
Vast lesions are subjected to hardware destruction. Applicable Methods:
- electrocoagulation – cutting off anogenital warts with a metal loop under the influence of an electric current;
- radio wave treatment – destruction of neoplasm tissue by an ionizing radiation apparatus, used to remove cancerous growths;
- vaporization with a carbon dioxide laser is the most acceptable and painless method for eliminating warts in the urethra, cervix, which reduces the risk of relapse.
On average, the relapse rate of anogenital papillomatosis is 20%. After completing the course of treatment, the infected person must have information on how the disease is transmitted and develops.
It is necessary to streamline sexual life, use means of barrier protection during sexual intercourse. It is advisable to get rid of bad habits. You can not start inflammatory and infectious pathologies. It is useful to conduct preventive therapy, taking immunomodulators and vitamin-mineral complexes.